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Chapter 18 Part 1 The Scientific Revolution and The Enlightenment.

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1 Chapter 18 Part 1 The Scientific Revolution and The Enlightenment

2 The Medieval View of the World Mainly religious and theological Mainly religious and theological Political theory was based on “Divine Right of Kings” Political theory was based on “Divine Right of Kings” Society governed by Church views, traditions, practices Society governed by Church views, traditions, practices Superstition played a major role in life Superstition played a major role in life

3 Scientific thought in the early 16 th century Still based on medieval ideas Still based on medieval ideas Aristotle’s ideas gave us our views about the universe (seemed to conform with Church views) Aristotle’s ideas gave us our views about the universe (seemed to conform with Church views) The Geocentric view: the earth was the center of a static, motionless universe The Geocentric view: the earth was the center of a static, motionless universe Science was a branch of theology Science was a branch of theology

4 Causes of the Scientific Revolution Impact of Medieval Universities: Impact of Medieval Universities: By 1300 philosophy had become an accepted discipline (as well as law, medicine and theology) By 1300 philosophy had become an accepted discipline (as well as law, medicine and theology) Medieval philosophers had developed a degree of independence from theologians AND a sense of free-inquiry Medieval philosophers had developed a degree of independence from theologians AND a sense of free-inquiry

5 Medieval Universities (causes) Leading universities established new professorships of mathematics, astronomy, and physics (natural philosophy) within their departments of philosophy Leading universities established new professorships of mathematics, astronomy, and physics (natural philosophy) within their departments of philosophy Major scientific figures either studied or taught at universities Major scientific figures either studied or taught at universities

6 The Renaissance (causes) Stimulated science by rediscovering ancient mathematics Stimulated science by rediscovering ancient mathematics Renaissance patronage was often scientific as well as artistic and humanistic Renaissance patronage was often scientific as well as artistic and humanistic

7 Navigational Problems (causes) Problems on sea voyages during the Age of Discovery created a need for scientific advances Problems on sea voyages during the Age of Discovery created a need for scientific advances New instruments: telescope, barometer, thermometer, pendulum clock, microscope, air pump New instruments: telescope, barometer, thermometer, pendulum clock, microscope, air pump

8 Gresham College in England (causes) Scientists worked closely with top officials in the Royal Navy and leading merchants and shipbuilders Scientists worked closely with top officials in the Royal Navy and leading merchants and shipbuilders Became the main center of scientific activity during the first ½ of the 17 th Century Became the main center of scientific activity during the first ½ of the 17 th Century

9 The New World View Essay Discuss how the New World View, which was developed during the Scientific Revolution of the late 16 th and early 17 th centuries was applied to society during the Enlightenment of the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries. Discuss how the New World View, which was developed during the Scientific Revolution of the late 16 th and early 17 th centuries was applied to society during the Enlightenment of the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries. Be certain to address the areas of religious philosophy, economics, science and medicine, government and justice, and beliefs about the nature of man and progress. Be certain to address the areas of religious philosophy, economics, science and medicine, government and justice, and beliefs about the nature of man and progress.

10 In the 16 th Century Copernicus ( ) wrote: On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres Copernicus ( ) wrote: On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres Feared a backlash by the scientific community and by the Church Feared a backlash by the scientific community and by the Church So he postponed publication of his book AND dedicated the book to Pope Paul III (Reform Pope) So he postponed publication of his book AND dedicated the book to Pope Paul III (Reform Pope)

11 Copernicus Did NOT intend his theories to challenge Church Doctrine Did NOT intend his theories to challenge Church Doctrine Copernicus gave us a New World View Copernicus gave us a New World View

12 The Heliocentric View Argued that the earth revolved around the sun and that the sun was the center of the universe Argued that the earth revolved around the sun and that the sun was the center of the universe Stated that the stars did not move although they appeared to due to the result of the earth’s rotation Stated that the stars did not move although they appeared to due to the result of the earth’s rotation Problem: retrograde motion of planets relative to the earth was explained (falsely) by the premise of epicycles Problem: retrograde motion of planets relative to the earth was explained (falsely) by the premise of epicycles

13 Copernican Theory Challenged Ptolemy’s (2 nd century A.D.) view of the universe Challenged Ptolemy’s (2 nd century A.D.) view of the universe And seemed to challenge the Bible’s Book of Genesis (also a geocentric view) And seemed to challenge the Bible’s Book of Genesis (also a geocentric view)

14 Religious Reaction Martin Luther and John Calvin: condemned Copernicus’ Theory: cited Biblical passages that supported the Medieval point of view Martin Luther and John Calvin: condemned Copernicus’ Theory: cited Biblical passages that supported the Medieval point of view Initial Catholic Reaction: not so emphatic: the Catholic Church did not always interpret the Bible as literally as the Protestants did Initial Catholic Reaction: not so emphatic: the Catholic Church did not always interpret the Bible as literally as the Protestants did BUT by 1616: the Catholic Church proclaimed the Copernican theory as false and persecuted those holding Copernican views (like Galileo) BUT by 1616: the Catholic Church proclaimed the Copernican theory as false and persecuted those holding Copernican views (like Galileo)

15 Tycho Brahe ( ) Europe’s leading astronomer in the 16 th Century Europe’s leading astronomer in the 16 th Century Built the best observatory in Europe (Denmark) and collected massive data on his observations of the universe Built the best observatory in Europe (Denmark) and collected massive data on his observations of the universe Data will be used for centuries Data will be used for centuries LATER Brahe’s data will be used to support Copernican theory…but Brahe, himself, did not LATER Brahe’s data will be used to support Copernican theory…but Brahe, himself, did not

16 Tycho Brahe Unlike Copernicus, Brahe believed that while the planets all revolved around the sun, the sun revolved around the earth Unlike Copernicus, Brahe believed that while the planets all revolved around the sun, the sun revolved around the earth

17 Johannes Kepler ( ) Assistant to Brahe Assistant to Brahe First great Protestant scientist First great Protestant scientist Mathematically proved Copernican theory Mathematically proved Copernican theory Developed the three laws of planetary motion Developed the three laws of planetary motion

18 Kepler’s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion Orbits of Planets are elliptical Orbits of Planets are elliptical Planets do not move at uniform speed while in their orbits Planets do not move at uniform speed while in their orbits The time it takes for a planet to orbit the sun is directly based on its distance from the sun (the closer a planet is to the sun…the faster its orbit) The time it takes for a planet to orbit the sun is directly based on its distance from the sun (the closer a planet is to the sun…the faster its orbit)

19 Galileo Galilei ( ) Developed the 3 Laws of Motion using the experimental method (with controlled experiments) Developed the 3 Laws of Motion using the experimental method (with controlled experiments) Acceleration experiment: Acceleration experiment: 1. Gravity is a universal force that produced uniform acceleration 2. All falling objects descend with equal velocity regardless of their weight

20 Galileo’s Laws of Motion 3. Law of Inertia: an object that is in motion remains in motion until it is stopped by some external force

21 Galileo Validated Copernicus’ heliocentric view with the aid of a telescope Validated Copernicus’ heliocentric view with the aid of a telescope Galileo was the first to use the telescope as a scientific instrument Galileo was the first to use the telescope as a scientific instrument He built his own He built his own

22 Galileo Demonstrated that the moon and other planets were not perfectly round like a crystal sphere (the Medieval view) Demonstrated that the moon and other planets were not perfectly round like a crystal sphere (the Medieval view) Discovered the four moons of Jupiter which refuted the medieval (Aristotle’s) belief that Jupiter was embedded in an impenetrable crystal sphere Discovered the four moons of Jupiter which refuted the medieval (Aristotle’s) belief that Jupiter was embedded in an impenetrable crystal sphere

23 Changing Religious Views Galileo’s findings became more controversial in Catholic Countries Galileo’s findings became more controversial in Catholic Countries At the same time, Protestants countries in Northern Europe became more accepting of Galileo’s challenges to Medieval views At the same time, Protestants countries in Northern Europe became more accepting of Galileo’s challenges to Medieval views Maybe because they had already made inroads into challenging long-accepted beliefs and practices Maybe because they had already made inroads into challenging long-accepted beliefs and practices

24 The Church v Galileo 1616 The Catholic Church declared Copernican theory to be heretical 1616 The Catholic Church declared Copernican theory to be heretical 1632 Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in which he wrote about Copernican theory in mathematical terms 1632 Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in which he wrote about Copernican theory in mathematical terms

25 The Inquisition! In 1633 the Inquisition of Pope Urban VII forced Galileo to retract his support of the Copernican theory In 1633 the Inquisition of Pope Urban VII forced Galileo to retract his support of the Copernican theory Galileo remained under house arrest for the rest of his life Galileo remained under house arrest for the rest of his life

26 Francis Bacon ( ) Formalized the empirical method (that had already been used by Brahe and Galileo) Formalized the empirical method (that had already been used by Brahe and Galileo) The Inductive Method (empirical) for scientific experimentation: The Inductive Method (empirical) for scientific experimentation: Begin with an observation Begin with an observation Form a hypothesis Form a hypothesis Conduct an experiment Conduct an experiment Organize data Organize data

27 Rene Descartes ( ) Wrote Discourse on Method Wrote Discourse on Method Advocated the use of deductive reasoning (logic) Advocated the use of deductive reasoning (logic) This, combined with Bacon’s Inductive Method (empirical method) became the Scientific Method used today This, combined with Bacon’s Inductive Method (empirical method) became the Scientific Method used today

28 Rene Descartes Used deductive reasoning to prove his existence Used deductive reasoning to prove his existence “cognito ergo sum” means “I think; therefore, I am.” “cognito ergo sum” means “I think; therefore, I am.” His proof depended on logic alone His proof depended on logic alone

29 Deductive Reasoning Begin with clear and incontrovertible facts Begin with clear and incontrovertible facts Subdivide each problem into as many parts as necessary, using a step-by-step logical sequence Subdivide each problem into as many parts as necessary, using a step-by-step logical sequence

30 Descartes Developed analytical geometry Developed analytical geometry Demonstrated the relationship between algebra and geometry Demonstrated the relationship between algebra and geometry

31 Descartes’ Cartesian Dualism Divided all existence into the spiritual and the material Divided all existence into the spiritual and the material The Spiritual can only be examined by deductive reasoning (logic) The Spiritual can only be examined by deductive reasoning (logic) The material can be examined by the experimental (inductive) method The material can be examined by the experimental (inductive) method

32 The Modern Scientific Method Bacon’s Inductive Method and Descartes’ Deductive Method

33 Sir Isaac Newton ( ) Used the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo to create a theory explaining the order and design of the universe Used the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo to create a theory explaining the order and design of the universe

34 Newton’s Principles of Universal Gravitation Were detailed in his 1687 book: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Were detailed in his 1687 book: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Popularly known as Principia Popularly known as Principia Perhaps the greatest book on science ever written Perhaps the greatest book on science ever written

35 Principle of Universal Gravitation Natural laws of motion (gravitation) are evident in the movement of heavenly bodies and earthly objects Natural laws of motion (gravitation) are evident in the movement of heavenly bodies and earthly objects Newton developed a set of mathematical principles to explain motion

36 Principle of Universal Gravitation Every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship Every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship Since these natural laws are unchangeable and predictable, God’s active participation is not needed to explain the forces of nature Since these natural laws are unchangeable and predictable, God’s active participation is not needed to explain the forces of nature Above view is the foundation for Deism (rational religion) Above view is the foundation for Deism (rational religion)

37 Newton Also invented Calculus Also invented Calculus Although Leibniz also made the claim Although Leibniz also made the claim

38 Anatomy and Physiology Scientists began to challenge Greco-Roman medical views (especially those of Galen 2 nd Century A.D) Scientists began to challenge Greco-Roman medical views (especially those of Galen 2 nd Century A.D) Vesalius The Structure of the Human Body (1543) renewed and modernized the study of anatomy Vesalius The Structure of the Human Body (1543) renewed and modernized the study of anatomy Harvey On the Movement of the Heart and Blood (1628) explained how blood was pumped by the heart and circulated throughout the body Harvey On the Movement of the Heart and Blood (1628) explained how blood was pumped by the heart and circulated throughout the body

39 Anatomy and Physiology Van Leeuwenhoek: Father of Microscopy Van Leeuwenhoek: Father of Microscopy Developed powerful microscopes Developed powerful microscopes Was the first to see and write about bacteria, yeast, other living organisms in a drop of water and the circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries Was the first to see and write about bacteria, yeast, other living organisms in a drop of water and the circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries

40 Royal Scientific Societies Governments and Monarchs encouraged scientific inquiry as a means to further the prestige of the state and remain at the cutting edge of technology Governments and Monarchs encouraged scientific inquiry as a means to further the prestige of the state and remain at the cutting edge of technology Scientific Societies gave scientists opportunities to communicate with each other internationally, helping to forge an international scientific community Scientific Societies gave scientists opportunities to communicate with each other internationally, helping to forge an international scientific community

41 The Royal Society (England) The most successful and prestigious The most successful and prestigious Founded 1660 Founded 1660 Other Royal Societies created in : Naples, France, Prussia, Russia Other Royal Societies created in : Naples, France, Prussia, Russia

42 Impact of the Scientific Revolution Led to the Enlightenment of the 18 th Century Led to the Enlightenment of the 18 th Century Improvements in exploration (chronometer gave mariners the ability to determine Longitude) Improvements in exploration (chronometer gave mariners the ability to determine Longitude) Helped to lead to the Agricultural Revolution of the 18 th Century Helped to lead to the Agricultural Revolution of the 18 th Century

43 Impact of the Scientific Revolution Improvement of medical knowledge helped to improve the quality of life (later in the 19 th and 20 th centuries) Improvement of medical knowledge helped to improve the quality of life (later in the 19 th and 20 th centuries) Science and religion will not be in acute conflict until 19 th and 20 th Centuries Science and religion will not be in acute conflict until 19 th and 20 th Centuries

44 No conflict between Science and Religion (yet) There was no attempt in the 17 th and 18 th centuries to secularize science There was no attempt in the 17 th and 18 th centuries to secularize science Most scientists believed that they were studying and analyzing God’s creation Most scientists believed that they were studying and analyzing God’s creation Universal agreement among scientists that the origin of the universe WAS supernatural Universal agreement among scientists that the origin of the universe WAS supernatural

45 The Debate Regarding Religion: To what extent did God continue to be involved in his creation? To what extent did God continue to be involved in his creation?

46 After the Catholic Counter- Reformation The Catholic Church became more hostile to science and science declined in Italy…but NOT in France The Catholic Church became more hostile to science and science declined in Italy…but NOT in France Protestant countries became the leaders of the scientific revolution…especially England Protestant countries became the leaders of the scientific revolution…especially England


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