2Removing and Inspecting Calipers 32-1Research the procedure for removing the caliper in the appropriate service information. Loosen the bleeder screws slightly and then retighten them.
3Removing and Inspecting Calipers 32-1If the caliper is being rebuilt or a new caliper will be installed, it is good practice to flush the old brake fluid from the system at this time.
4Removing and Inspecting Calipers 32-1Use a brake pedal holding tool to slightly apply the brakes and block off the compensating ports in the master cylinder to avoid excess fluid leakage.
5Removing and Inspecting Calipers 32-1Remove the brake line or hose from the caliper. Be careful not to lose the sealing rings.
6Removing and Inspecting Calipers 32-1Push the caliper pistons back into their bores slightly. While many use a screwdriver as shown, a pry bar is a safer choice.
7Removing and Inspecting Calipers 32-1Remove the caliper assembly from its mountings.
8Removing and Inspecting Calipers 32-1Inspect the caliper for leaks or damage, including the piston dust boot. Determine any necessary actions.
9Inspecting Caliper Mountings, Slides, and Pins 32-2Clean the caliper mountings and slides/pins using equipment/procedures for dealing with asbestos/hazardous dust.
10Inspecting Caliper Mountings, Slides, and Pins 32-2Inspect the caliper mountings and slides/pins for wear and damage. Determine any necessary actions.
11Inspecting Brake Pads and Wear Indicators 32-3Determine the type of wear indicator system utilized. Check that it is not contacting or nearly contacting the rotor.
12Inspecting Brake Pads and Wear Indicators 32-3If the system is a sensor style, test the system to verify that the system is operational. Determine any necessary actions.
13Checking Brake Pads32-4Remove the pads and retaining hardware. Inspect all pads, retaining hardware, and anti-noise shims for wear or damage.
14Checking Brake Pads32-4Measure the remaining brake pad thickness and compare to specifications. Determine any necessary action(s).
15Disassembling Calipers 32-5Disassemble the caliper, following the service manual procedure.
16Disassembling Calipers 32-5Clean all of the caliper parts following the service manual procedure.
17Disassembling Calipers 32-5Inspect each of the parts for damage, rust, and wear.
18Disassembling Calipers 32-5Measure the caliper bore-to-piston clearance with a feeler gauge and compare to specifications. Determine any necessary actions.
19Reassembling Calipers 32-6Make sure the rotor has been properly installed on the hub/spindle and the hub surface is free of rust or dirt.
20Reassembling Calipers 32-6Reassemble the caliper assembly, following the manufacturer’s procedure.
21Reassembling Calipers 32-6Assemble the pads, hardware, and caliper on the caliper mountings using the specified lubricant. Lubricate all moving parts.
22Reassembling Calipers 32-6Reinstall the brake line fittings using two new copper washers (if equipped).
23Reassembling Calipers 32-6Tighten the brake line fitting and caliper bolts to the proper torque. Bleed the brakes following the manufacturer’s procedure.
24Reassembling Calipers 32-6Seat the pads by applying the brake pedal several times, not allowing the pedal to go all the way to the floor.
25Reassembling Calipers 32-6If the brake pedal is spongy, you will need to bleed the brakes of any remaining trapped air in the system.
26Reassembling Calipers 32-6Inspect the system for any brake fluid leaks, no matter how small.
27Retracting and Readjusting Pistons on an Integrated Parking Brake 32-7Research the procedure for retracting the caliper piston. Select the proper adapter or tool to match the caliper piston.
28Retracting and Readjusting Pistons on an Integrated Parking Brake 32-7Install the tool and turn it in the direction that causes the piston to retract.
29Retracting and Readjusting Pistons on an Integrated Parking Brake 32-7Continue turning until the piston is lightly seated at the bottom of its bore.
30Retracting and Readjusting Pistons on an Integrated Parking Brake 32-7Make sure the dust boot is seated properly in its grooves.
31Inspecting and Measuring Disc Brake Rotors 32-8Research the procedure and specifications for inspecting the rotor. If you have not already done so, remove the caliper assembly, brake pads, and any hardware. Clean the rotor with approved asbestos removal equipment.
32Inspecting and Measuring Disc Brake Rotors 32-8Inspect the rotor for hard spots or hot spots, scoring, cracks, and damage.
33Inspecting and Measuring Disc Brake Rotors 32-8Measure the rotor thickness at the deepest groove or thinnest part of the rotor and compare to specifications.
34Inspecting and Measuring Disc Brake Rotors 32-8Measure the thickness of the rotor in a minimum of five to eight places around the face of the rotor. Calculate the maximum thickness variation and compare to specifications.
35Inspecting and Measuring Disc Brake Rotors 32-8Set up a dial indicator to measure lateral runout. Rotate the rotor and find the lowest spot on the rotor, then zero the dial indicator.
36Inspecting and Measuring Disc Brake Rotors 32-8Slowly rotate the rotor to find the highest spot on the rotor. Read the dial indicator showing maximum runout.
37Inspecting and Measuring Disc Brake Rotors 32-8Keep turning the rotor to make sure the dial indicator does not read below zero. If it does, rezero the dial caliper on the lowest spot. Keep turning the rotor to find the highest spot and reread the dial indicator. Compare all of your readings to the specifications and determine if the rotor is fit for service, is machinable, or needs to be replaced.
38Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9Research the procedure for removing and reinstalling the brake rotor. If you have not already done so, remove the caliper assembly, brake pads, and any hardware. If the caliper mount straddles the rotor, remove it.
39Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9To remove the hubless-style rotor, mark the rotor for proper reinstallation.
40Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9If there are screws or speed nuts holding the rotor to the hub, remove them.
41Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9Remove the rotor from the hub.
42Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9To remove the hub-style rotor, remove the wheel bearing locking mechanism.
43Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9Remove the wheel bearing adjusting nut, thrust washer, and outer bearing.
44Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9Follow the steps of the inner bearing and grease seal removal procedure if the rear bearing must be removed.
45Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9To reinstall a hubless-style rotor, clean all mounting surfaces on the hub and rotor and remove any burrs.
46Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9Slip the rotor over the wheel studs.
47Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9If the rotor uses small screws to hold the rotor to the hub, reinstall those and tighten to the proper torque.
48Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9Spin the rotor to ensure it spins true and does not contact any other components such as the dust shield.
49Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9To reinstall a hub-style rotor, see the wheel bearing service skill drills in the Wheel Bearing chapter. Be sure to properly lock the adjustment nut in place once adjustment is completed.
50Removing and Reinstalling Rotors 32-9Spin the rotor to ensure it spins true and does not contact any other components such as the dust shield.
51Refinishing Hubless Rotors on Vehicle 32-10Research the brake lathe manufacturer’s procedure for properly refinishing the rotor. Mount the on-car brake lathe to the rotor after cleaning the rust and dirt from between the rotor and hub or adjusting the wheel bearing so there is no end play.
52Refinishing Hubless Rotors on Vehicle 32-10Perform the runout calibration on the brake lathe.
53Refinishing Hubless Rotors on Vehicle 32-10Adjust the cutting bits and cut off any lip at the edge of the rotor.
54Refinishing Hubless Rotors on Vehicle 32-10Make sure the cutting bits will not contact the rotor face, and move the cutting head toward the inner diameter of the rotor face. Set the cutting bits to the proper cutting depth for machining.
55Refinishing Hubless Rotors on Vehicle 32-10Install the anti-chatter device, if specified.
56Refinishing Hubless Rotors on Vehicle 32-10Engage the automatic feed and watch for proper machining action. If necessary, repeat this step until all damaged surface areas have been removed on both sides of the rotor.
57Refinishing Hubless Rotors on Vehicle 32-10If necessary, perform a finish cut on the rotor.
58Refinishing Hubless Rotors on Vehicle 32-10Remeasure the rotor thickness to determine if the rotor is above minimum thickness specifications.
59Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Research the brake lathe manufacturer’s procedure for properly refinishing the rotor. Clean nicks, burrs, or debris from the mounting surfaces of the rotor including the centering hole.
60Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Mount the rotor. Check that the rotor is running true on the lathe.
61Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Install the anti-chatter band or anti-chatter pucks on the rotor.
62Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Position the cutting head about one-quarter the way in from the outer diameter of the rotor. Turn on the lathe.
63Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Set the cutting bits to the proper cutting depth for machining the ridge.
64Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11By hand, move the cutting head outward toward the ridge. Slowly remove the ridge.
65Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Once the ridge is removed, run the cutting head all the way in to the inner face of the rotor.
66Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Set the cutting bits to the proper cutting depth for machining the rotor face.
67Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Engage the automatic feed on “fast” cut and watch for proper machining action. Some single-cut machines only have one cutting speed. If necessary, repeat this step until all damaged surface areas have been removed on both sides of the rotor.
68Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11If necessary, perform a finish cut on the rotor. This is usually done on “slow” speed.
69Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Use sandpaper or a drill with a sanding pad to give the rotor faces a nondirectional finish.
70Refinishing Rotors off Vehicle 32-11Remeasure the rotor thickness to determine if the rotor is above minimum thickness specifications.
71Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Inspect the wheel studs and lug nuts for damage. Look for signs of stretched studs, cross-threaded lug nuts, and broken-off studs. Determine if the stud can be removed with the flange on or off the vehicle.
72Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12To perform the drawing-in method, position the flange so the stud has clearance on the back side to be removed.
73Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Remove any damaged studs with a hammer. Be careful not to damage any of the surfaces on the flange and hub, including the wheel speed sensor and tone ring.
74Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Insert the stud in the hole in the flange and rotate it so that all of the flutes on the stud line up with the notches in the flange.
75Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Place enough heavy-duty washers over the stud to prevent the lug nut from bottoming out on the threads.
76Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Place the lug nut onto the stud, flat side in. Tighten it until the stud bottoms out in the flange. Inspect the threads on the stud and lug nut to make sure they did not get damaged.
77Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12To perform the hydraulic press method, remove the hub and wheel flange from the vehicle following the manufacturer’s procedure.
78Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Use the press to push out any damaged lug studs.
79Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Insert the new lug stud into the wheel flange hole. Line up the flutes on the stud with the notches in the flange.
80Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Support the hub and flange so the press is pushing the stud straight into the flange.
81Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Push the stud in until it bottoms out in the flange.
82Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12To complete the drawing-in method and the hydraulic press method, verify that each stud is fully seated in the flange.
83Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Studs 32-12Reinstall the hub and flange on the vehicle if it was removed.
84Installing Wheels, Torquing Lug Nuts, and Making Final Checks 32-13Start the lug nuts on the wheel studs, being careful to match up the surfaces.
85Installing Wheels, Torquing Lug Nuts, and Making Final Checks 32-13Carefully run all of the lug nuts down so they are seated in the wheel.
86Installing Wheels, Torquing Lug Nuts, and Making Final Checks 32-13Lower the vehicle so the tires are partially on the ground to keep them from turning while tightening the lug nuts.
87Installing Wheels, Torquing Lug Nuts, and Making Final Checks 32-13Use a torque wrench to tighten each lug nut to the proper torque in the proper sequence.
88Installing Wheels, Torquing Lug Nuts, and Making Final Checks 32-13Once all of the lug nuts have been torqued, go around them again, this time in a circular pattern to ensure that you did not miss any in the previous pattern.
89Installing Wheels, Torquing Lug Nuts, and Making Final Checks 32-13If the vehicle was equipped with hubcaps and valve stem caps, reinstall them.
90Installing Wheels, Torquing Lug Nuts, and Making Final Checks 32-13Check the brake fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir. Start the vehicle and check the brake pedal for proper feel and height. Check the parking brake for proper operation. Also inspect the system for any brake fluid leaks and loose or missing fasteners.