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Englishes: British, Scottish, Global. Dialect, idiolect, sociolect Received Pronunciation (RP) (Received) Standard English, Oxford English, Public School.

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Presentation on theme: "Englishes: British, Scottish, Global. Dialect, idiolect, sociolect Received Pronunciation (RP) (Received) Standard English, Oxford English, Public School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Englishes: British, Scottish, Global

2 Dialect, idiolect, sociolect Received Pronunciation (RP) (Received) Standard English, Oxford English, Public School English, BBC English „talking proper/posh”; „la-di-dah” 1791: Critical Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language (John Walker) Education Act of 1870: rise of public schools

3 „He wore a tattered brown trilby, grey shabby trousers, crepe-soled shoes and a dark-coloured anorak. He carried a walking stick and spoke with a good accent, the police say.” „He wore a tattered brown trilby, grey shabby trousers, crepe-soled shoes and a dark-coloured anorak. He carried a walking stick and spoke with a good accent, the police say.” „It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without making some other Englishmen despise him.” (G. B. Shaw) „It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without making some other Englishmen despise him.” (G. B. Shaw) Paul Scott: The Jewel in the Crown Paul Scott: The Jewel in the Crown (Hari Kumar and Ronald Merrick)

4 Dialects, RP and society Thomas Hardy: Tess of the D’Urbervilles: Thomas Hardy: Tess of the D’Urbervilles: Tess, „who passed Sixth Standard in the National School under a London-trained mistress, spoke two languages: the dialect at home, more or less, ordinary English abroad and to persons of quality” Tess, „who passed Sixth Standard in the National School under a London-trained mistress, spoke two languages: the dialect at home, more or less, ordinary English abroad and to persons of quality” dialect - accent dialect - accent Non-standard language: vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation Non-standard language: vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation

5 I didn’t have no dinner tonight. I seen an accident before I come here. Our teacher can’t learn us nothing. (OE ‘leornian’) I shall stay here while she comes. („Wait while lights flash.”)

6 Cockney English „cockeneyes”, „cockenay” (Bow Bells) dropping the aitch dropping the aitch („That’s an ‘edgeog. It’s really two words. ‘Edge and ‘og. Both begin with an aitch.”) diphthongs: fate, great, high, why, don’t diphthongs: fate, great, high, why, don’t about – abaht; thousand – fahsn, Gawd about – abaht; thousand – fahsn, Gawd the glottal stop the glottal stop the linking ‘r’ the linking ‘r’ v and w v and w ‘th’ sounds (Fevvers, muvver, barf, fahsn) ‘th’ sounds (Fevvers, muvver, barf, fahsn) question tags („innit”) question tags („innit”) intonation, pitch, tone („Ay-ee, Ba-yee, Cy-ee”) intonation, pitch, tone („Ay-ee, Ba-yee, Cy-ee”)

7 sources of Cockney Romany: pal, chavvy, mush Yiddish: shemozzle, nosh Arabic and other Oriental: bint, cushy, dekko, shufti, doolally French (WW2): parleyvoo, San fairy ann, toot sweet Mate, chum, guvnor, cock, love Blimey (Gorblimey), Cor, Wotcha aggro

8 Literary Cockney Literary Cockney Sam Weller in Dickens’ The Pickwick Papers (Wellerisms: „Bevare of vidders”) Sam Weller in Dickens’ The Pickwick Papers (Wellerisms: „Bevare of vidders”) G. B. Shaw: Pygmalion G. B. Shaw: Pygmalion Kipling: Barrack-Room Ballads Kipling: Barrack-Room Ballads East Enders (soap); Only Fools and Horses (sitcom) East Enders (soap); Only Fools and Horses (sitcom)

9 Cockney slang Adam and Eve Adam and Eve Brahms and Liszt Brahms and Liszt Rosy Lee Rosy Lee trouble and strife trouble and strife butcher’s; cobbler’s butcher’s; cobbler’s Jimmy Riddle; Bristols Jimmy Riddle; Bristols to rabbit; raspberry to rabbit; raspberry Joe Strummer, Hampdon roar, Salisbury Crag Joe Strummer, Hampdon roar, Salisbury Crag BACK-SLANG (yob, nevis) BACK-SLANG (yob, nevis)

10 Geordie English talk, walk – wahk Clear ‘l’ Uvular ‘r’ Don’t, goat, know Down, town

11 Scouse(r) English „lobscouse” „lobscouse” Fair=fur, spare=spur Fair=fur, spare=spur Singing Singing Pin, sing Pin, sing ‘r’: alveolar tap (rabbit, grass, carry) ‘r’: alveolar tap (rabbit, grass, carry) Matter – ‘marra’ (Norra lorra fun) Matter – ‘marra’ (Norra lorra fun) k/x/ing, back/x/, d/z/ad, bad/z/ k/x/ing, back/x/, d/z/ad, bad/z/ Adenoidal speech Adenoidal speech Brookside (soap opera) Brookside (soap opera)

12 Yorkshire dialect Fast, car, path Fast, car, path House, down – hoos, doon House, down – hoos, doon Up, cut, much Up, cut, much ‘th’ sounds ‘th’ sounds Summat Summat Norse words: beck, lake (laik) Norse words: beck, lake (laik)

13 Scottish English, Scots ‘r’ sound („rhotic”) (laird, beard, bird) Vowel length rule Rise vs rice, brewed vs brood, Do, poor, use – boot, tool Voiceless velar fricative (loch) Where, while

14 Scots Gaelic: glarsach, loch, pibroch, cairn, clachan, capercailzie, slogan Gaelic: glarsach, loch, pibroch, cairn, clachan, capercailzie, slogan ceilidh, slainte ceilidh, slainte Old E: bairn, wee, bide, dicht, heuch, glaikit Old E: bairn, wee, bide, dicht, heuch, glaikit Norse: ain, aye, blether, kirk, lass, lowp, maun Norse: ain, aye, blether, kirk, lass, lowp, maun Dutch: pinkie, callan, coft Dutch: pinkie, callan, coft

15 Literary Scots (Lallans Scots) Robert Burns (18th cent.) Robert Burns (18th cent.) Scottish Renaissance (1920-s, 30s) Scottish Renaissance (1920-s, 30s) Hugh MacDiarmid: The Eemis Stane Hugh MacDiarmid: The Eemis Stane

16 India Hindi loanwords: bungalow, pundit, pukka, juggernaut, jungle, the Hobson-Jobson (dictionary, 1886) Three Language Formula

17 South Africa: Afrikaans South Africa: Afrikaans trek, spoor, veldt Jamaica and West Indies: Creole Jamaica and West Indies: Creole „Di kuk di tel mi mi faamin, bot it nat so.” Singlish West Africa: Krio Pidgin Englishes (eg. Tok Pisin in New Guinea)


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