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Englishes: British, Scottish, Global

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Presentation on theme: "Englishes: British, Scottish, Global"— Presentation transcript:

1 Englishes: British, Scottish, Global

2 Dialect, idiolect, sociolect
Received Pronunciation (RP) (Received) Standard English, Oxford English, Public School English, BBC English „talking proper/posh”; „la-di-dah” 1791: Critical Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language (John Walker) Education Act of 1870: rise of public schools

3 „He wore a tattered brown trilby, grey shabby trousers, crepe-soled shoes and a dark-coloured anorak. He carried a walking stick and spoke with a good accent, the police say.” „It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without making some other Englishmen despise him.” (G. B. Shaw) Paul Scott: The Jewel in the Crown (Hari Kumar and Ronald Merrick)

4 Dialects, RP and society
Thomas Hardy: Tess of the D’Urbervilles: Tess, „who passed Sixth Standard in the National School under a London-trained mistress, spoke two languages: the dialect at home, more or less, ordinary English abroad and to persons of quality” dialect - accent Non-standard language: vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation

5 I didn’t have no dinner tonight.
I seen an accident before I come here. Our teacher can’t learn us nothing. (OE ‘leornian’) I shall stay here while she comes. („Wait while lights flash.”)

6 Cockney English „cockeneyes”, „cockenay” (Bow Bells)
dropping the aitch („That’s an ‘edgeog. It’s really two words. ‘Edge and ‘og. Both begin with an aitch.”) diphthongs: fate, great, high, why, don’t about – abaht; thousand – fahsn, Gawd the glottal stop the linking ‘r’ v and w ‘th’ sounds (Fevvers, muvver, barf, fahsn) question tags („innit”) intonation, pitch, tone („Ay-ee, Ba-yee, Cy-ee”)

7 sources of Cockney Romany: pal, chavvy, mush Yiddish: shemozzle, nosh
Arabic and other Oriental: bint, cushy, dekko, shufti, doolally French (WW2): parleyvoo, San fairy ann, toot sweet Mate, chum, guvnor, cock, love Blimey (Gorblimey), Cor, Wotcha aggro

8 Literary Cockney Sam Weller in Dickens’ The Pickwick Papers (Wellerisms: „Bevare of vidders”) G. B. Shaw: Pygmalion Kipling: Barrack-Room Ballads East Enders (soap); Only Fools and Horses (sitcom)

9 Cockney slang Adam and Eve Brahms and Liszt Rosy Lee
trouble and strife butcher’s; cobbler’s Jimmy Riddle; Bristols to rabbit; raspberry Joe Strummer, Hampdon roar, Salisbury Crag BACK-SLANG (yob, nevis)

10 Geordie English talk, walk – wahk Clear ‘l’ Uvular ‘r’
Don’t, goat, know Down, town

11 Scouse(r) English „lobscouse” Fair=fur, spare=spur Singing Pin, sing
‘r’: alveolar tap (rabbit, grass, carry) Matter – ‘marra’ (Norra lorra fun) k/x/ing, back/x/, d/z/ad, bad/z/ Adenoidal speech Brookside (soap opera)

12 Yorkshire dialect Fast, car, path House, down – hoos, doon
Up, cut, much ‘th’ sounds Summat Norse words: beck, lake (laik)

13 Scottish English, Scots
‘r’ sound („rhotic”) (laird, beard, bird) Vowel length rule Rise vs rice, brewed vs brood, Do, poor, use – boot, tool Voiceless velar fricative (loch) Where, while

14 Scots Gaelic: glarsach, loch, pibroch, cairn, clachan, capercailzie, slogan ceilidh, slainte Old E: bairn, wee, bide, dicht, heuch, glaikit Norse: ain, aye, blether, kirk, lass, lowp, maun Dutch: pinkie, callan, coft

15 Literary Scots (Lallans Scots)
Robert Burns (18th cent.) Scottish Renaissance (1920-s, 30s) Hugh MacDiarmid: The Eemis Stane

16 India Hindi loanwords: bungalow, pundit, pukka, juggernaut, jungle,
the Hobson-Jobson (dictionary, 1886) Three Language Formula

17 South Africa: Afrikaans
trek, spoor, veldt Jamaica and West Indies: Creole „Di kuk di tel mi mi faamin, bot it nat so.” Singlish West Africa: Krio Pidgin Englishes (eg. Tok Pisin in New Guinea)

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