Presentation on theme: " 6 Major forms of Kinship around the world Crow, Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Omaha, Sudanese Identified by Henry Louis Morgan in 1871 Systems of."— Presentation transcript:
6 Major forms of Kinship around the world Crow, Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Omaha, Sudanese Identified by Henry Louis Morgan in 1871 Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family 3 types of descent groups Patrilineal, Matrilineal, and Ambilineal
This one should look familiar… Ambilineal Emphasizes the nuclear family The closer the relative, the more distinguished Ego’s parents are clearly distinguished from siblings (e.g. mother vs. aunt) Found in: Western societies, !Kung, Eskimo Roughly 10% of the world’s societies
Simplest kinship system Ambilineal Differences by generation and gender Parental generation and generation of children Found in: pre-contact Hawaii, Polynesia Roughly 35% of the world’s cultures
Unilineal (either Patrilineal or Matrilineal) Classification by gender and generation Parental links based on sex Parental siblings of the same sex are considered “parents” (e.g. mother or father) Parental siblings of differing sex are considered aunts or uncles Ego is encouraged to marry Cross Cousins, but not Parallel Cousins Useful in reaffirming links between clans Found in: Southern India (250 million people), Sri Lanka, Multiple N.A. tribes
Most complicated system Patrilineal Separate designation for every one of ego’s kin Tends to occur in patrilineal societies Found in: Sudan, ancient Latin and Anglo-Saxon cultures, Arab, Turkish, and Chinese societies Perhaps the most common form of kinship historically
CharacteristicsFamilyResidenceKinshipDescent Indus./Foraging Agriculture Horticulture Pastoralism Men WorkExtendedPatrilocalIroquoisPatrilineal
CharacteristicsFamilyResidenceKinshipDescent Indus./Foraging Agriculture Horticulture Women WorkExtendedMatrilocalCrowMatrilineal Pastoralism Men WorkExtendedPatrilocalIroquoisPatrilineal
CharacteristicsFamilyResidenceKinshipDescent Indus./Foraging Agriculture Men WorkExtendedPatrilocalIroquoisPatrilineal Horticulture Women WorkExtendedMatrilocalCrowMatrilineal Pastoralism Men WorkExtendedPatrilocalIroquoisPatrilineal
CharacteristicsFamilyResidenceKinshipDescent Indus./Foraging MobilityNuclearNeolocalEskimoBilateral Agriculture Men WorkExtendedPatrilocalIroquoisPatrilineal Horticulture Women WorkExtendedMatrilocalCrowMatrilineal Pastoralism Men WorkExtendedPatrilocalIroquoisPatrilineal
Clan Exact relationship is unknown, but members think there is some paternal ancestor in the distant past Totemism Trace lineage to an animal or object Associations by choice Think cliques in high school
Egalitarian society Everyone has equal access to wealth, influence, and prestige Often see mechanisms to equalize wealth “Does not mean an equal amount, just an equal opportunity” Stratified Society People divided into social tiers (classes or castes) Do not share equally in wealth, influence, and prestige Can be rigid or moveable Where does America fit?
What are some “American ideals” that come to mind? “All Men Are Created Equal” Equality Freedom Are we living up to these ideals? Better yet, have these ideals ever really meant what we think they mean? Thomas Jefferson wrote, “All Men Are Created Equal” while owning slaves
In the 30 years between 1975 and 2005, U.S. households in the bottom 80 percent income bracket saw their share of national income actually fall. Those in the bottom 40 percent saw a drop in their incomes when adjusted for inflation. Only the top 20 percent of households experienced an increase their share of the total national income; much of that went to households in the highest 5 percent of the income bracket. U.S. households in the top 20 percent of the income distribution earn own well more than 80 percent of the nation's wealth.
Are resources allocated evenly? 46 million uninsured in America.America Of those, 30 million make less than $44,000 a year per household (family of four) So…do we have classes in America?classes People Like Us: Social Class in America People Like Us: Social Class in America