Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Marital Residence and Kinship Patterns of Marital Residence The Structure of Kinship Variation in Unilineal Descent Systems Functions of Unilineal."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 21 Marital Residence and Kinship Patterns of Marital Residence The Structure of Kinship Variation in Unilineal Descent Systems Functions of Unilineal Descent Groups Ambilineal Systems Explaining Variation in Residence The Emergence of Unilineal Systems Explaining Ambilineal and Bilateral Systems Kinship Terminology
Figure 22-1 (p. 390) Percentage of Societies in the Ethnographic Record with Various Marital Residence Patterns Source: Calculated from Allan D. Coult and Robert W. Haberstein, Cross Tabulations of Murdocks World Ethnographic Sample (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1965)
The Structure of Kinship Types of Affiliation with Kin Unilineal descent Ambilineal descent Bilateral kinship
Figure 22-2 (p. 392) Patrilineal Descent Individuals 4 and 5, who are the children of 1 and 2, affiliate with their fathers patrilineal kin group, represented by the color red. In the next generation, the children of 3 and 4 also belong to the red kin group, since they take their descent from their father, who is a member of that group. However, the children of 5 and 6 do not belong to this patrilineal group, since they take their descent from their father, who is a member of a different group. That is, although the mother of 12 and 14 belongs to the red patrilineal group, she cannot pass on her descent affiliation to her children, and since her husband (6) does not belong to her patrilineage, her children (12 and 14) belong to their fathers group. In the fourth generation, only 15 and 16 belong to the red patrilineal group, since their father is the only male member of the preceding generation who belongs to the red patrilineal group. In this diagram, then, 1, 4, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 16 are affiliated by the patrilineal descent; all the other individuals belong to other patrilineal groups.
Figure 22-3 (p. 393) Matrilineal Descent Individuals 4 and 5, who are the children of 1 and 2, affiliate with their mothers kin group, represented by the color green. In the next generation, the children of 5 and 6 also belong to the green kin group, since they take their descent from their mother, who is a member of that group. However, the children of 3 and 4 do not belong to this matrilineal group, since they take their descent from their mother, who is a member of a different group; their father, although a member of the green matrilineal group, cannot pass his affiliation on to them under the rule of matrilineal descent. In the fourth generation, only 21 and 22 belong to the green matrilineal group, since their mother is the only female member of the preceding generation who belongs. Thus, individuals 2, 4, 5, 12, 14, 21, and 22 belong to the same matrilineal group.
Figure 22-4 (p. 393) Ambilineal Descent A hypothetical ambilineal group of kin is indicated by the color blue. Members 4 and 5 belong to this group because of a male link, their father (1); members 12 and 14 belong because of a female link, their mother (5); and members 19 and 20 belong because of a male link, their father (12). This is a hypothetical example because any combination of lineal links is possible in an ambilineal descent group.
Figure 22-5 (p. 394) Bilateral Kinship In a bilateral system the kindred is ego-centered; hence, it varies with different points of reference (except for brothers and sisters). In any bilateral society, the kindred minimally includes parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and first cousins. So, if we look at the close kindred of the brother and sister 20 and 21 (enclosed by the solid line), it would include their parents (9 and 10), their aunts and uncles (7, 8, 11, 12), their grandparents (1, 2, 3, 4), and their first cousins (16-19, 22-25). But the kindred of the brother and sister 24 and 25 (shown by the dashed line) includes only some of the same people (3, 4, 10-12, 20-23); in addition, the kindred of 24 and 25 includes people not in the kindred of 20 and 21 (5, 6, 13-15, 26-29).
Variation in Unilineal Descent Systems Lineages Clans Phratries Moieties Combinations
Variation in Unilineal Descent Systems Patrilineal Organization Matrilineal Organization
Functions of Unilineal Descent Groups Regulating Marriage Economic Functions Political Functions Religious Functions
Ambilineal Systems Ambilineal descent affiliates individuals with kin related to them through either men or women.
Explaining Variation in Residence Neolocal Residence Matrilocal versus Patrilocal Residence Bilocal Residence Avunculocal Residence
Figure 22-6 (p. 402) The Main Predictors of Marital Residence Patterns An arrow indicates the suggested causal direction. Source: Adapted from Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember, Marriage, Family, and Kinship: Comparative Studies of Social Organization (New Haven, CT: HRAF Press, 1983).
The Emergence of Unilineal Systems Unilineal descent groups are most common in societies in the middle range of cultural complexity. Unilineal descent groups often have important functions in the social, economic, political, and religious realms of life.
Explaining Ambilineal and Bilateral Systems Some societies with unilineal descent groups may be transformed into ambilineal ones under special conditions, such as depopulation. The conditions that favor bilateral systems are in a large part opposite to those favoring unilateral descent.
Kinship Terminology Societies tend to refer to a number of different kin by the same classificatory term. Consanguineal kin Affinal kin
Kinship Terminology Inuit, or Eskimo, System Omaha System Crow System Iroquois System Sudanese System Hawaiian System
Figure 22-7 (p. 404) Inuit (Eskimo) Terminology System
Figure 22-8 (p. 404) Omaha Kinship Terminology System
Figure 22-9 (p. 405) Crow Kinship Terminology System
Figure (p. 406) Iroquois Kinship Terminology System
Figure (p. 406) Sudanese Kinship Terminology System
Figure (p. 406) Hawaiian Kinship Terminology System