Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Marital Residence and Kinship"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 21 Marital Residence and Kinship Patterns of Marital ResidenceThe Structure of KinshipVariation in Unilineal Descent SystemsFunctions of Unilineal Descent GroupsAmbilineal SystemsExplaining Variation in ResidenceThe Emergence of Unilineal SystemsExplaining Ambilineal and Bilateral SystemsKinship Terminology
3 Figure (p. 390) Percentage of Societies in the Ethnographic Record with Various Marital Residence Patterns Source: Calculated from Allan D. Coult and Robert W. Haberstein, Cross Tabulations of Murdock’s World Ethnographic Sample (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1965)
4 The Structure of Kinship Types of Affiliation with KinUnilineal descentAmbilineal descentBilateral kinship
5 Figure (p. 392) Patrilineal Descent Individuals 4 and 5, who are the children of 1 and 2, affiliate with their father’s patrilineal kin group, represented by the color red. In the next generation, the children of 3 and 4 also belong to the red kin group, since they take their descent from their father, who is a member of that group. However, the children of 5 and 6 do not belong to this patrilineal group, since they take their descent from their father, who is a member of a different group. That is, although the mother of 12 and 14 belongs to the red patrilineal group, she cannot pass on her descent affiliation to her children, and since her husband (6) does not belong to her patrilineage, her children (12 and 14) belong to their father’s group. In the fourth generation, only 15 and 16 belong to the red patrilineal group, since their father is the only male member of the preceding generation who belongs to the red patrilineal group. In this diagram, then, 1, 4, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 16 are affiliated by the patrilineal descent; all the other individuals belong to other patrilineal groups.
6 Figure (p. 393) Matrilineal Descent Individuals 4 and 5, who are the children of 1 and 2, affiliate with their mother’s kin group, represented by the color green. In the next generation, the children of 5 and 6 also belong to the green kin group, since they take their descent from their mother, who is a member of that group. However, the children of 3 and 4 do not belong to this matrilineal group, since they take their descent from their mother, who is a member of a different group; their father, although a member of the green matrilineal group, cannot pass his affiliation on to them under the rule of matrilineal descent. In the fourth generation, only 21 and 22 belong to the green matrilineal group, since their mother is the only female member of the preceding generation who belongs. Thus, individuals 2, 4, 5, 12, 14, 21, and 22 belong to the same matrilineal group.
7 Figure (p. 393) Ambilineal Descent A hypothetical ambilineal group of kin is indicated by the color blue. Members 4 and 5 belong to this group because of a male link, their father (1); members 12 and 14 belong because of a female link, their mother (5); and members 19 and 20 belong because of a male link, their father (12). This is a hypothetical example because any combination of lineal links is possible in an ambilineal descent group.
8 Figure (p. 394) Bilateral Kinship In a bilateral system the kindred is ego-centered; hence, it varies with different points of reference (except for brothers and sisters). In any bilateral society, the kindred minimally includes parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and first cousins. So, if we look at the close kindred of the brother and sister 20 and 21 (enclosed by the solid line), it would include their parents (9 and 10), their aunts and uncles (7, 8, 11, 12), their grandparents (1, 2, 3, 4), and their first cousins (16-19, 22-25). But the kindred of the brother and sister 24 and 25 (shown by the dashed line) includes only some of the same people (3, 4, 10-12, 20-23); in addition, the kindred of 24 and 25 includes people not in the kindred of 20 and 21 (5, 6, 13-15, 26-29).
9 Variation in Unilineal Descent Systems LineagesClansPhratriesMoietiesCombinations
10 Variation in Unilineal Descent Systems Patrilineal OrganizationMatrilineal Organization
11 Functions of Unilineal Descent Groups Regulating MarriageEconomic FunctionsPolitical FunctionsReligious Functions
12 Ambilineal SystemsAmbilineal descent affiliates individuals with kin related to them through either men or women.
13 Explaining Variation in Residence Neolocal ResidenceMatrilocal versus Patrilocal ResidenceBilocal ResidenceAvunculocal Residence
14 Figure (p. 402) The Main Predictors of Marital Residence Patterns An arrow indicates the suggested causal direction. Source: Adapted from Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember, Marriage, Family, and Kinship: Comparative Studies of Social Organization (New Haven, CT: HRAF Press, 1983).
15 The Emergence of Unilineal Systems Unilineal descent groups are most common in societies in the middle range of cultural complexity.Unilineal descent groups often have important functions in the social, economic, political, and religious realms of life.
16 Explaining Ambilineal and Bilateral Systems Some societies with unilineal descent groups may be transformed into ambilineal ones under special conditions, such as depopulation.The conditions that favor bilateral systems are in a large part opposite to those favoring unilateral descent.
17 Kinship Terminology Consanguineal kin Affinal kin Societies tend to refer to a number of different kin by the same classificatory term.Consanguineal kinAffinal kin
18 Kinship Terminology Inuit, or Eskimo, System Omaha System Crow System Iroquois SystemSudanese SystemHawaiian System
19 Figure 22-7 (p. 404) Inuit (Eskimo) Terminology System
20 Figure 22-8 (p. 404) Omaha Kinship Terminology System
21 Figure 22-9 (p. 405) Crow Kinship Terminology System
22 Figure 22-10 (p. 406) Iroquois Kinship Terminology System
23 Figure 22-11 (p. 406) Sudanese Kinship Terminology System
24 Figure 22-12 (p. 406) Hawaiian Kinship Terminology System