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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.. Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Chapter 28 Community Interactions
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc Why Are Interactions In Ecological Communities Important? An ecological community consists of all the interacting populations in an ecosystem. The populations in a community interact in the following ways: Competition, Predation (including parasitism), Commensalism, and Mutualism The distinctions between these types of interactions are based on whether the interactions are harmful or beneficial.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc Why Are Interactions In Ecological Communities Important? Community interactions help limit population ________. Predators tend to kill members of prey populations that are easiest to eat, thereby leaving behind individuals with better defenses against predation, which in turn survive longer and leave more offspring. The interacting web of life that forms a community tends to maintain a balance between resources and the number of individuals consuming them. This balance is susceptible to disruption, especially when organisms are introduced into an ecosystem in which they did not evolve.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc Why Are Interactions In Ecological Communities Important? Community interactions influence evolutionary change. When members of different populations interact with one another, they may influence each other’s ability to _________ and ______________. Community interactions, therefore, serve as agents of natural selection.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc Why Are Interactions In Ecological Communities Important? At the same time, the increasingly effective defenses of prey favor the survival and reproduction of predators that are best able to overcome the defenses. Thus, even as predator–prey interactions limit population size, they also shape the bodies and behaviors of the interacting populations. This process, in which interacting species influence one another’s evolution, is called ____________.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Competition Among Species? When different species compete for a limited resource, the interaction is called __________ competition. In interspecific competition, each species is harmed, because access to resources is reduced for both. The intensity of interspecific competition depends on how similar the requirements of the competing species are. Ecologists express the degree of competition as the degree to which the ecological ________ of the competing species overlap.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Competition Among Species? Each species has a unique place in its ecosystem. Each species occupies a unique ecological niche that encompasses all aspects of its way of life. A species’ niche includes the particular type of habitat in which it lives, the environmental factors necessary for its survival, and the methods by which it acquires its nutrients. In sum, a species’ ecological niche is the combination of all factors that define how the species “____________________” within its ecosystem. No two species ever occupy exactly the same ecological niche.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Competition Among Species? Species evolve in ways that reduce niche overlap. Robert MacArthur documented the effects of competitive exclusion by observing five warbler species in the wild. All five species lived and built nests in the same spruce trees, so it appeared at first glance that their niches overlapped significantly. MacArthur found that the different species nested at different times, and searched for food in different portions of the tree, employing different hunting tactics. Therefore, the five species in effect divided up the resources, thus reducing niche overlap and interspecific competition.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Competition Among Species? Fig Blackburnian warbler Black-throated green warbler Cape May warbler Bay-breasted warbler Yellow-rumped warbler When two species with similar requirements coexist, they typically occupy a smaller niche than either would if it were by itself. This phenomenon is called resource ______________.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator–Prey Interactions? Predators and prey coevolve. When a predator consumes its prey, one species benefits at the expense of another. Parasites live on or inside their prey, or host, and feed on its body without necessarily killing it. Herbivores are also predators that do not necessarily kill the prey on which they feed. Predator and prey exert intense natural selection on one another. As prey become more difficult to catch, predators must become more adept at hunting them.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? Predation Fig. 28-4
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? As predators become more adept, prey must get better at eluding them. Coevolution has endowed the cheetah with speed and camouflage spots, and its zebra prey with speed and camouflage stripes. Bats and moths provide an excellent example of how both physical structures and behaviors are molded by coevolution. Bats hunt at night using ____________ to locate their prey; they emit high frequency sounds and analyze the returning echoes.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? In response to this highly effective prey-detection system, certain moth species have evolved ears that are sensitive to the frequencies used by echolocating bats. When a moth hears a bat, it takes evasive action, flying erratically or dropping to the ground. Camouflage conceals both predators and their prey. Both predators and prey have evolved colors, pattern, and shapes that resemble their surroundings.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator–Prey Interactions? Such disguises, called camouflage, render animals inconspicuous even when they are in plain sight. Camouflaged prey animals may resemble specific objects such as leaves, twigs, seaweed, thorns, or bird droppings. Fig. 28-5
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? Predators may also be camouflaged. A spotted cheetah becomes inconspicuous in the grass as it watches for grazing mammals. The frogfish closely resembles the algae-covered rocks on which it sits motionless; it dangles a small lure from a threadlike appendage on its upper lip, which attracts small fish that become a meal.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? Bright colors often warn of danger. In contrast to camouflaged animals, some animal species have evolved bright, conspicuous warning coloration. Animals with warning coloration are usually distasteful, and many are poisonous. Predators learn from their mistakes—a single unpleasant experience is often sufficient to teach a predator to avoid similarly colored prey in the future.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? Some organisms gain protection through __________. In mimicry, one species evolves to resemble another. Mimics are usually prey organisms that gain added protection from predators as a result of this adaptation. This benefit can be gained in various ways. Harmless animals may evolve to resemble poisonous ones.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? A _____________ species may evolve to resemble another distasteful species, such that each species benefits from predators’ painful experience with the other. Predators rapidly learn to avoid insects with striped patterns of stinging bees, hornets, and yellow jackets. The poisonous and distasteful monarch butterfly has wing patterns similar to those of the equally distasteful viceroy butterfly.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? Prey species may evolve to mimic predators. Snowberry flies are hunted by jumping spiders, but the colors on the fly and its behavior when confronted by a spider scares off the spider. The markings on the fly’s wings closely resemble the legs of another jumping spider. Fig
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? Prey species may evolve __________ coloration, patterns that disrupt predation by distracting the predator. Some animal species have evolved patterns of color that closely resemble the eyes of a much larger animal, which may startle the predator and allow the prey to escape.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? Some animal predators and prey engage in __________ warfare. Some predators and prey have evolved toxic chemicals for attack and defense. A dramatic example of chemical defense is seen in the bombardier beetle that releases secretions from special glands into an abdominal chamber in the presence of a predator. There, enzymes catalyze an explosive reaction that shoots a toxic, boiling-hot spray onto the attacker.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? Plants have defenses against herbivores. Plants have evolved chemical adaptations that deter their herbivorous predators. Lupine plants produce chemicals that deter attack by the blue butterfly, whose larvae feed on the lupine’s buds. Plants may also defend themselves by producing compounds that toughen their edible parts. Some plants deter predation with structures such as thorns or thick bark.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Are The Effects Of Predator– Prey Interactions? Herbivores have adaptations overcoming plant defenses. Herbivorous predators have coevolved with the chemical defenses of plants. Some insect species have evolved efficient ways to detoxify or even use the toxic chemicals present in many plant tissues. Monarch butterflies lay their eggs on milkweed, and when the larvae hatch, they consume the toxic plant.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Is Symbiosis? Symbiosis is an intimate, prolonged interaction between organisms of different species. In a symbiotic relationship, one species always benefits, but the second species may be unaffected, harmed, or helped by the relationship. In ______________ interactions, one species benefits and the other is unaffected. Barnacles attached to a whale benefit by getting a free ride through nutrient-rich water, and the whale does not seem to be affected.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Is Symbiosis? In ____________ interactions, one species benefits and the other is harmed. Parasites live in or on their hosts, usually harming or weakening them but not immediately killing them. Symbiotic parasites include tapeworms, fleas, numerous disease-causing protists, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. In parasitic symbiosis, one organism benefits by feeding on another. Parasite-host interactions are a powerful source of coevolutionary change.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Is Symbiosis? In mutualistic interactions, both species benefit. A lichen is a mutualistic association between an algae and a fungus, which appears to be a single organism. The fungal body in the lichen provides support and protection for the photosynthetic algae, which in turn provide sugar molecules for the fungus.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Is Symbiosis? Animals and plants may have symbiotic mutualistic associations with microorganisms. Animals lack the enzymes required to digest cellulose; however, some animals—such as cows, horses, rabbits, and termites— have cellulose-digesting protists and bacteria in their digestive tracts that digest this plant material for them. Plants and certain fungal species may associate to form mycorrhizae, in which the fungal bodies penetrate and become entwined with plant roots. The fungi acquire sugars that the plant has produced by photosynthesis, and the plant acquires mineral nutrients that the fungi extract from the soil.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc What Is Symbiosis? Fig b Not all mutualisms are symbiotic. Many mutualistic interactions between species do not involve the prolonged intimacy of symbiosis. Many flowering plants are pollinated by animals that visit only when the plant is in bloom. In the mutualistic relationship between plant and pollinator, the plant gains transportation of its pollen, and the pollinator gains food.
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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.. Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Chapter 28 Community Interactions.
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