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Symbiotic Relationships Who gets along? Who doesn’t? Who hurts who?

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Presentation on theme: "Symbiotic Relationships Who gets along? Who doesn’t? Who hurts who?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Symbiotic Relationships Who gets along? Who doesn’t? Who hurts who?

2 Species Interactions 5 basic types of interactions of species within an ecosystem. 1.Interspecific competition – When members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources. food, light, space 2.Predation – when a member or group of members of one species feeds directly on another species. 1.Usually animal to animal 2.Rare cases of plants to animal 3.Parasitism – when one species feeds on/in the body of another species and harms it. 4.Mutualism – interaction of two species when both benefit from the interaction. 5.Commensalism – interaction of two species when only one benefits from the interaction and the other is not harmed or benefited.

3 Species Interactions Interactions have a significant effect on the resources used and the population of different species within the ecosystem. – b/c of these interactions the ability to reproduce and or survive is influenced. Natural selection takes place through interactions. The most common interaction is competition. – For limited resources – Requires one species to have the ability to be more efficient than another when finding and utilizing resources like food and shelter. – The role species play in an ecosystem is considered their ecological niche. (ie: the job they have, how they act towards their environment, what they do in their environment) – When species compete for food, shelter, light; their niches overlap. The more overlap the more intense the competition.

4 Species Interactions Predation (predatory-prey interaction): – Most consumer species feed off of other consumer species. – Herbivores – feed off of plants and other producer type species. – Omnivores – feed on plants and other living consumers. – Carnivore – feed on other living consumers only – To survive predators must eat other prey, without they would die and the evolution of the species can be stunted.

5 Species Interactions Predator/Prey cont. Predators – a closer look… – Methods used to capture prey: Herbivores – simply walk, swim or fly to the plant when needing to eat. Carnivores/Omnivores – have moving prey so there are a few main types of capture to eat. – 1. Pursuit – run, chase prey until they wear them out or catch up to capture and eat. » Usually a single predator after a single prey. – 2. Ambush – When one or more predators lay in wait or similar techniques to capture and eat prey » Hunting is an organized way to ambush prey, seen from lions, wolves, humans, pack type organisms. » Camouflage – The predator disguises themselves to ambush the prey. – 3. Chemical Warfare – Predators use venom or poison to attack prey » Venomous snakes and spiders spit on or bite a prey organism and wait for them to immobilize before eating them.

6 Species Interactions Prey – A closer look… Evolved/Adapted to avoid predators: – Being able to move fast, quick reflexes (long legs, strong muscles) – Highly developed sense of sight, smell or hearing (large eyes, ears, nose) – Avoidance adaptations like shells (turtles), thick bark (giant sequoia), spines (porcupines), and thorns (rose bushes, cacti) – Camouflage – being able to blend into their environment so as not to be easily seen. (the moth, chameleons, cuttlefish) – Chemical Warfare – discourage predators to eat them by having a Warning Coloration… bright colored markings like red, orange, yellow, blue; all with usually black markings. (some frogs, snakes, salamanders) This lets the predator know that they are poisonous or taste bad and should not be eaten. (oleander, monarch butterfly)

7 Species Interactions Prey cont. – Foul smelling, gives off a nasty odor when startled or caught (skunks, skunk cabbage, stinkbugs) – Irritating – gives off a chemical or needles that irritate the predator. (bombardier beetle, stinging nettles) – Mimicry – acting like or looking like an organism that is poisonous so as not to be eaten (viceroy butterfly looks like the monarch) – Living in large groups so as to not to be the one most likely eaten (schools of fish – tuna; Zebras) Usually the one captured and eaten are the sick, old or young of the group.

8 Symbiosis Three types of Symbiotic relationships between organisms: – Mutualism – both organisms benefit from the interaction. – Commensalism – One organism benefits, the other organism is not harmed or benefits from the interaction. – Parasitism – One organism benefits, the other organism is harmed, but may not always die during the interaction.

9 Looking at pics















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