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Considerations in Working with Diversity Lessons Learned: Issues and Considerations in Responding to domestic violence among men of color Presented By.

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Presentation on theme: "Considerations in Working with Diversity Lessons Learned: Issues and Considerations in Responding to domestic violence among men of color Presented By."— Presentation transcript:

1 Considerations in Working with Diversity Lessons Learned: Issues and Considerations in Responding to domestic violence among men of color Presented By Dr. Oliver J. Williams For Respect’s Roundtable June 23, 2008 London, England

2 Status of Diversity related to Intimate Partner Violence Developmental stages of the field of Intimate partner violence Developmental stages of the field of Intimate partner violence Grass Roots Movement All in the same boat Pre 1974 women 1974 to present-battered 1994 VAWA helping women (safe houses) Women’s ShelterExpanding the ways we do our work In the mid 80’s questions about inclusiveness, diversity and disparities begin to surface More Scholarship and organizations Began around diversity issues, Disparities in IPV became more visible Today the extent that we understand, trust, articulate and integrate this knowledge into the field is variable BIP’s

3 Status of Diversity related to Intimate Partner Violence Developmental stages of the field of Intimate partner violence Developmental stages of the field of Intimate partner violence Expanding the ways we do our work Expanding the ways we do our work Today the extent that we understand, trust, articulate and integrate this knowledge into the field is variable, although more scholarship is available on diversity issues. There is a difference between consciousness raising and acceptance or believing and doing. The field must be more action oriented. Work with diversity must be more effectively and consistently communicated with in the field of IPV

4 Among traditional theories about working with men who batter *Social Learning theory *Feminist Theory—which offers a critique of male disenfranchisement, subordination and other behavior toward women including violence (Sexism) *Social Exchange/ Resource depletion *Chronic stress reaction *Power and control

5 Among traditional theories about working with men who batter Male socialization Low frustration tolerance Poor conflict resolution skills Legal Sanctions, police and court intervention are imperative to end male violence to women, get him into treatment and hold him accountable for his actions

6 What other issues might we include? What is the brand of Sexism used—the manifestation of subordination of women and the rationales that support it from culture to culture What is the brand of Sexism used—the manifestation of subordination of women and the rationales that support it from culture to culture Cultural rules and roles from non-Western perspectives? Cultural rules and roles from non-Western perspectives? The utilization and interpretations of faith perspective that justifies control and abuse of women The utilization and interpretations of faith perspective that justifies control and abuse of women Definition of manhood and relationships between men and women Definition of manhood and relationships between men and women Immigration and changing roles and rules Immigration and changing roles and rules Displaced Anger? Displaced Anger? Other issue? Other issue?

7 Theories which explain violence among some African American males Structural Theory : Structural Theory : Social and racial oppression which result in high risk social context. The violence that results is predictable Social and racial oppression which result in high risk social context. The violence that results is predictable But produces But produces Interactional theory: Interactional theory: Environmental imperatives and codes of conduct which shape behavior, attitudes and interactions among men and other interpersonal relationships Environmental imperatives and codes of conduct which shape behavior, attitudes and interactions among men and other interpersonal relationships

8 Hi Ed. & SES Mid Ed. & SES Low Ed. & SES Stressful social context & environmental codes of conduct Maladaptive Responses Traditional explanations about why men batter Intimate Relationships SelfCommunity Elder abuse, Partner abuse, child abuse, Acquaintance violence, homicide, internalized racism Suicide, Drug abuse, Mental Illness internalized racism Community violence, gangs,crime, victimization of others, internalized racism Williams & Griffin, 1990

9 Stressful social context & environmental codes of conduct Maladaptive Responses Traditional explanations about why men batter Intimate Relationships SelfCommunity Elder abuse, Partner abuse, child abuse, Acquaintance violence, homicide, internalized racism Suicide, Drug abuse, Mental Illness internalized racism Community violence, gangs,crime, victimization of others, internalized racism Williams & Griffin, 1990 and substance use Unless you address the content/issues they will trade one negative behavior for another

10 Blended perspectives combine the conventional perspectives of DV with the cultural perspectives of the client population. Causes for abuse: sexism male socialization, power, control, etc. Interventions: court sanction, individual or group counseling focused on batterer responsibility; a pro-feminist perspective, etc. Causes for abuse: violent community living environment, displaced anger, societal context; oppression; cultural values confusion, poor problem solving skills Intervention: Familiarity with client population’s worldview, understanding client social context, understanding when to confront and when to acknowledge, healing, personal responsibility, building capacity/skills, non-violent conflict resolution skills and the ability to accurately self-assess Williams, 1998

11 Confront attitudes & behavior, teach alternatives to violence. Increase capacity to negotiate social context Social context Interactional context To alter behavior toward partner: Sanctions and Healing Negotiate social context Make the link between experiences and behavior I.D. Strengths, confront negatives, Court-mandates community sanctions and supports Provide info. on resources Williams, 1999

12 In considering methods to engage men and address their reality, it is important that practitioners and group members not collude! Practitioner must always question but also acknowledge and/or confront the mans reality. Balance Acknowledge + Confront Collude _ _ Williams, 1999

13 Levels of focus on diversity by BIP Colorblind Healthy Heterogeneous Culturally specific Milieu Culturally focused Culturally Centered Differences don’t make a difference Inclusiveness of diversity is imperative: Programming efforts Critical mass from one cultural group with no plan to address diversity. But, diversity is implicit in themes of the groups Examine historical and contemporary reality along with definitions of cultural identity, social realities, responses and behavior choices Culture and values are at the center of treatment. Attention given to ritual (most BIP’s Williams and Becker, 95) Williams,1999

14 What types of organizations that have the most success with diverse populations? Cultural programs efforts are those activities that not only demonstrate organizational preparedness to work with culturally different clients but also demonstrate a willingness to work with them. Cultural program efforts can be used to delineate generic one size fits all programs from culturally competent agencies. Culturally competent organizations are involved in a set of service activities that are responsive to the needs of the client pool. Some examples include outreach activities which 1) shape a communities perception of such a helping system, 2) demonstrating an investment in the community, 3) encouraging the community to seek help through programs; and 4) offering interventions and approaches that are culturally congruent with the needs and realities of the diverse population(s) they serve.

15 Developing an expanded strategy to address domestic violence among men of color Internal desire and capacity to do this work Internal desire and capacity to do this work Treatment approaches that are congruent with the population you work Treatment approaches that are congruent with the population you work Both a treatment model, public education approach and community collaboration approach—between mainstream programs, culturally specific programs and diverse communities Both a treatment model, public education approach and community collaboration approach—between mainstream programs, culturally specific programs and diverse communities

16 Primary Prevention: All African American men Secondary Prevention: Those African American men At high risk of becoming abusive Tertiary Prevention: Those African American men that with a history of abusive behavior Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Preventions

17 Primary Prevention: All African American men Secondary Prevention: Those African American men At high risk of becoming abusive Tertiary Prevention: Those African American men with a history of abusive behavior Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Preventions Additional themes to address In each category of men include: 1.Definitions of respect 2.Identity of self 3.Acknowledging & addressing their brand of sexism, beliefs about the purpose of women & behaviors & attitudes toward women 4.Fatherhood & DV 5.Street codes about resolving conflict 6.Co-parenting & DV 7.Alternatives to violence --given social context & situation --man to man, family, community 8.Problem solving skills 9.Connections with parts of the community that supports Non-violence and adaptive behaviors

18 Reconcile culturally diverse community issues and perceptions Is law enforcement, domestic violence service programs and interventions seen as a resource or intrusion by the diverse communities? Is law enforcement, domestic violence service programs and interventions seen as a resource or intrusion by the diverse communities? Are you effective in engaging diverse communities and/or men in the Batterer Intervention Programs? Are you effective in engaging diverse communities and/or men in the Batterer Intervention Programs? If not why not? If not why not? What do battered women understand about what you are doing and why you are doing it—do they trust you? What do battered women understand about what you are doing and why you are doing it—do they trust you? What do diverse communities understand about DV and their relationship to it? What do diverse communities understand about DV and their relationship to it? Are they apart of the message? Are they apart of the message? Are they the messenger too? Are they the messenger too? Are diverse communities included as part of the solution? Are diverse communities included as part of the solution?

19 Barriers and Challenges in addressing diversity in BIP programs Limited endorsement in the field Limited endorsement in the field Pre-disposition to a one-size fits all model and to deny differences Pre-disposition to a one-size fits all model and to deny differences Lack of understanding about what it means to be culturally competent Lack of understanding about what it means to be culturally competent Lack of supportive practitioners environments and community Lack of supportive practitioners environments and community Lack of supportive organizational environments Lack of supportive organizational environments Lack of knowledgeable & supportive researcher environments & communities Lack of knowledgeable & supportive researcher environments & communities Tendency for research to be a snap shot rather than investing in approaches and exploration of what works for communities of color Tendency for research to be a snap shot rather than investing in approaches and exploration of what works for communities of color

20 Barriers and Challenges in addressing diversity in BIP programs Need to evaluate study design, models and research team/partnerships related to diversity— what makes good partnerships and research Need to evaluate study design, models and research team/partnerships related to diversity— what makes good partnerships and research Tendency to study program failure rather than program success Tendency to study program failure rather than program success Tendency to study clients failure rather than client success Tendency to study clients failure rather than client success Lack of community investment or collaboration Lack of community investment or collaboration Lack of community partnerships Lack of community partnerships Concepts of accountability and restoration are in conflict Concepts of accountability and restoration are in conflict

21 Studies of BIP and Diversity Williams, 1994 Williams, 1994 Williams, 1995 Williams, 1995 Sharma, 1999 Sharma, 1999 Gondolf, 2006 Gondolf, 2006 Lyon, 2006 Lyon, 2006


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