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Geotechnical Site Characterization by Cone Penetration Testing Mid-America Earthquake Center Paul W. Mayne, PhD, P.E. Professor, Geosystems Civil & Environmental.

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Presentation on theme: "Geotechnical Site Characterization by Cone Penetration Testing Mid-America Earthquake Center Paul W. Mayne, PhD, P.E. Professor, Geosystems Civil & Environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geotechnical Site Characterization by Cone Penetration Testing Mid-America Earthquake Center Paul W. Mayne, PhD, P.E. Professor, Geosystems Civil & Environmental Engineering FHWA

2 Standard Penetration Test Rotary-drilled Borehole Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Procedures: ASTM D 1586 N = measured Number of Blows to drive sampler 300 mm into soil.

3 Representative SPT Profile

4 Corrections to SPT N-value Effect Variable Term Value Overburden Stress  vo ' CNCN (P a /  vo ') 0.5 but < 2 Energy Ratio 1 · Safety Hammer · Donut Hammer · Automatic Hammer CECE 0.6 to 0.85 0.3 to 0.6 0.85 to 1.0 Borehole Diameter · 65 to 115 mm · 150 mm · 200 mm CBCB 1.00 1.05 1.15 Sampling Method · Standard sampler · Sampler without liner CSCS 1.0 1.1 to 1.3 Rod Length · 10 m to 30 m · 6 to 10 m · 4 to 6 m · 3 to 4 m CRCR 1.0 0.95 0.85 0.75 Particle Size Median Grain Size (D 50 ) of Sand in mm CPCP 60 + 25 log D 50 Aging Time (t) in years since deposition CACA 1.2 + 0.05 log (t/100) Overconsolidation OCRC OCR OCR 0.2 1 Obtain by energy measurement per ASTM D4633

5 Corrections to SPT N-value  N measured = Raw SPT Resistance (ASTM D 1586).  N 60 = (ER/60) N measured = Energy-Corrected N Value where ER = energy ratio (ASTM D 4633). Note: 30% < ER < 100% with average ER = 60% in the U.S.  N 60  C E C B C S C R N meas = Estimated corrected N  (N 1 ) 60 = C N N 60 = Energy-Corrected SPT Value normalized to an effective overburden stress of one atmosphere: (N 1 ) 60 = (N 60 )/(  vo ’) 0.5 with stress given in atm. (Note: 1 atm = 1 bar = 100 kPa = 1 tsf).

6 Cone Penetrometers  Electronic Steel Probes with 60° Apex Tip  ASTM D 5778 Procedures  Hydraulic Push at 20 mm/s  No Boring, No Samples, No Cuttings, No Spoil  Continuous readings of stress, friction, pressure

7 Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) Mobile 25-tonne rigs with enclosed cabins to allow testing under all weather conditions Cone Trucks

8 Corrections to CPT Tip Stress correction for porewater pressures on unequal areas – Important in Intact Clays & Silts Sleeve Friction correction for porewater pressures – Use equal end areas on friction sleeve Baseline corrections – Obtain before & after sounding

9 Anchored Cone Rig  6-tonne Geostar truck with 20-tonne hydraulic pushing system  No special license  Twin earth anchors  Has penetrated to depths over 32+ meters at sites in SC, AL, MO, TN, & AL Mud Island, Downtown Memphis, TN

10 CPT Profile, Downhole Memphis qtqt ubub fsfs

11 Comparison CPT and SPT Downtown Memphis

12 60 o fsfs qcqc VsVs u1u1 u2u2  Cone Tip Stress, q t  Penetration Porewater Pressure, u  Sleeve Friction, f s  Arrival Time of Downhole Shear Wave, t s Obtains Four Independent Measurements with Depth: Seismic Piezocone Test

13 Downhole Shear Wave Velocity  Anchoring System  Automated Source  Polarized Wave  Downhole V s

14 Electronically-actuated Self-contained Left and right polarization Modified beam uses fin to enhance shear wave generation Successfully tested to depths of 20m Capable of being used with traditional impulse hammer Automated Seismic Source

15 Time shift (ms) Maximum crosscorrelation at  t = 6.75 ms Shear wave velocity = 155 m/s Right Strike CROSSOVER Method Left Strike Shear Wave at 8.15 m Shear Wave at 9.20 m CROSSCORRELATION Downhole Shear Waves

16 Sod Farm, Charleston, SC

17 CPT Soil Behavioral Classification Soil Behavior Type (Robertson et al., 1986; Robertson & Campanella, 1988) 1 – Sensitive fine grained5 – Clayey silt to silty clay9 – sand 2 – Organic material6 – Sandy silt to silty sand10 – Gravelly sand to sand 3 – Clay7 – Silty sand to sandy silt11 – Very stiff fine grained* 4 – Silty clay to clay8 – Sand to silty sand12 – Sand to clayey sand* *Note: Overconsolidated or cemented

18 Sounding - Shelby County, TN

19 CPT-Related Websites The Liquefaction Site (and CPT site): www.liquefaction.com www.liquefaction.com Link page to manufacturers, suppliers, and CPT services: http://www.usucger.org/insitulinks.html http://www.usucger.org/insitulinks.html Listing of available videos on CPT and other in-situ tests: http://www.geoinstitute.org/in-situ.html http://www.geoinstitute.org/in-situ.html The book Cone Penetration Testing in Geotechnical Practice (Lunne, Robertson, & Powell, 1997): Review: http://geotech.civen.okstate.edu/magazine/books/http://geotech.civen.okstate.edu/magazine/books/ Order: http://www.routledge-ny.com/http://www.routledge-ny.com/


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