Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Mechanical Wave Measurements Electromagnetic Wave Techniques

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Mechanical Wave Measurements Electromagnetic Wave Techniques"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mechanical Wave Measurements Electromagnetic Wave Techniques
Chapter 5 GEOPHYSICS Mechanical Wave Measurements Electromagnetic Wave Techniques

2 Geophysical Methods Mechanical Wave Measurements
Crosshole Tests (CHT) Downhole Tests (DHT) Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves Seismic Refraction Suspension Logging Electromagnetic Wave Techniques Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Electromagnetic Conductivity (EM) Surface Resistivity (SR) Magnetometer Surveys (MT)

3 Mechanical Wave Geophysics
Nondestructive measurements (gs < 10-4%) Both borehole geophysics and non-invasive types (conducted across surface). Measurements of wave dispersion: velocity, frequency, amplitude, attenuation. Determine layering, elastic properties, stiffness, damping, and inclusions Four basic wave types: Compression (P), Shear (S), Rayleigh (R), and Love (L).

4 Mechanical Wave Geophysics
Compression (P-) wave is fastest wave; easy to generate. Shear (S-) wave is second fastest wave. Is directional and polarized. Most fundamental wave to geotechnique. Rayleigh (R-) or surface wave is very close to S-wave velocity (90 to 94%). Hybrid P-S wave at ground surface boundary. Love (L-) wave: interface boundary effect

5 Mechanical Body Waves Initial P-wave S-wave

6 Mechanical Body Waves R S P Amplitude S R Time P Oscilloscope Source
Receiver (Geophone) R S P

7 Mechanical Waves (Compression)

8 Mechanical Waves (Shear)

9 Geophysical Equipment
Seismograph Spectrum Analyzer Portable Analyzer Velocity Recorder

10 Soil: Vp1 Rock: Vp2 zR x1 x2 x3 x4 Note: Vp1 < Vp2 t1
oscilloscope Seismic Refraction ASTM D 5777 t1 t2 t3 t4 Note: Vp1 < Vp2 zR Determine depth to rock layer, zR Vertical Geophones Source (Plate) x1 x2 x3 x4 Soil: Vp1 Rock: Vp2

11 1 xc = 15.0 m 1 Depth to Rock: zc = 5.65 m Vp2 = 4880 m/s
Seismic Refraction Vp2 = 4880 m/s 1 xc = m Vp1 = 1350 m/s 1 Depth to Rock: zc = 5.65 m t values x values

12 Shear Wave Velocity, Vs Fundamental measurement in all solids (steel, concrete, wood, soils, rocks) Initial small-strain stiffness represented by shear modulus: G0 = rT Vs2 (alias Gdyn = Gmax = G0) Applies to all static & dynamic problems at small strains (gs < 10-6) Applicable to both undrained & drained loading cases in geotechnical engineering.

13 Crosshole Seismic Testing Equipment

14 Crosshole Testing t x Shear Wave Velocity: Vs = x/t PVC-cased
Oscilloscope Crosshole Testing ASTM D 4428 Velocity Transducer (Geophone Receiver) t x Shear Wave Velocity: Vs = x/t Downhole Hammer (Source) Pump packer x = fctn(z) from inclinometers © Paul Mayne/GT Test Depth Slope Inclinometer Slope Inclinometer Note: Verticality of casing must be established by slope inclinometers to correct distances x with depth. PVC-cased Borehole PVC-cased Borehole

15 Downhole Seismic Testing Equipment

16 Downhole Testing z1 z2 Shear Wave Velocity: Vs = R/t x t
Oscilloscope Downhole Testing packer Pump Horizontal Plank with normal load Horizontal Velocity Transducers (Geophone Receivers) Shear Wave Velocity: Vs = R/t z1 z2 t R12 = z12 + x2 R22 = z22 + x2 x © Paul Mayne/GT Hammer Test Depth Interval Cased Borehole

17 In-Situ Surface Wave Testing
Sensors Source Signal Analyzer Accelerometer Rayleigh Surface Waves In-Situ Surface Wave Testing Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4

18 Shear Wave Measurements


20 Seismic Piezocone Test (SCPTu)

21 Seismic Piezocone Test
Obtains Four Independent Measurements with Depth: Hybrid of Penetrometer with Downhole Geophysics Vs fs Cone Tip Stress, qt Penetration Porewater Pressure,u Sleeve Friction, fs Arrival Time of Downhole Shear Wave, ts u1 u2 60o qc

22 Automated Seismic Source
Electronically-actuated Self-contained Left and right polarization Modified beam uses fin to enhance shear wave generation Successfully tested to depths of 20m Capable of being used with traditional impulse hammer

23 Downhole Shear Wave Velocity
Anchoring System Automated Source Polarized Wave Downhole Vs with excellent soil coupling.

24 Complete Set of Shear Wave Trains Mud Island Site A, Memphis TN

25 Sounding – Memphis, Shelby County, TN

26 Seismic Flat Dilatometer (SDMT)

27 Seismic DMTs at UMASS, Amherst
6 DMT 2 DMT 3 SDT 4 8 10 12

28 More Measurements is More Better

29 Electromagnetic Wave Techniques
Geophysical Methods Electromagnetic Wave Techniques

30 Electromagnetic Wave Geophysics
Nondestructive methods Non-invasive; conducted across surface. Measurements of electrical & magnetic properties of the ground: resistivity (conductivity), permittivity, dielectric, and magnetic fields. Cover wide spectrum in frequencies (10 Hz < f < 1022 Hz).

31 Electromagnetic Wave Geophysics
Surface Mapping Techniques: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Electrical Resistivity (ER) Surveys Electromagnetic Conductivity (EM) Magnetometer Surveys (MS) Downhole Techniques Resistivity probes, MIPs, RCPTu 2-d and 3-d Tomography

32 Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)
GPR surveys conducted on gridded areas Pair of transmitting and receiver antennae Short impulses of high-freq EM wave Relative changes in dielectric properties reflect differences in subsurface. Depth of exploration is soil dependent (up to 30 m in dry sands; only 3 m in wet saturated clay)

33 Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)
Xadar Sensors & Software GeoRadar

34 Illustrative Results from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)
Crossing an underground utility corridor

35 Illustrative Results from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

36 Illustrative Results of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

37 Examples of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)
Useful in Locating Underground Utilities

38 Results from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

39 Results from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

40 Electrical Resisitivity Measurements

41 Electrical Resistivity (ER) Surveys
Resisitivity rR (ohm-m) is an electrical property. It is the reciprocal of conductivity Arrays of electrodes used to measure changes in potential. Evaluate changes in soil types and variations in pore fluids Used to map faults, karst features (caves, sinkholes), stratigraphy, contaminant plumes.

42 Electrical Resisitivity Measurements
What will be gained by changing electrode spacing? Depth of ER survey: i.e., greater spacing influences deeper

43 Electrical Resisitivity Measurements

44 Electrical Resisitivity Measurements

45 Electrical Resistivity

46 Electromagnetic Conductivity (EM)

47 Magnetometer Surveys (MS)
Measure relative changes in the earths' magnetic field across a site.

48 Applicability of In-Situ Tests

49 In-Situ Testing - Objectives
Select in-situ tests for augmenting, supplementing, and even replacing borings. Realize the applicability of various in-situ methods to different soil conditions. Recognize the complementary nature of in-situ direct push methods with conventional rotary drilling & sampling methods. Recognize values for utilizing these methods and quality implications for their underuse.

50 A.P. Van den Berg Track Truck

Download ppt "Mechanical Wave Measurements Electromagnetic Wave Techniques"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google