2 Topics Covered Introduction Methods of investigation Methods of boring Soil samplers and samplingLocation and number of pits and boringsPenetrometer testsBorehole logsGeophysical methods
3 Disturbed Undisturbed Methods of SamplingSamplesDisturbed Undisturbed(The structure of the soil is disturbed (The true in-situ structure and water contentto a considerable degree) is retained as closely as possible)Remoulded Representative Block DriveWash
4 Methods of SamplingDisturbed samples used for determining index properties (ex. gsd, consistency, etc.)Undisturbed samples used for determining engineering properties (ex. Density, water content, shear strength parameters, etc.)Wash samples obtained from wash boring water or mud.Representative sample retains all constituents of the soil, but is disturbed from natural state and structure. (ex. Split spoon sampler)Block samples are carved out form sides or bottoms of excavations, sealed in a box and taken to lab.Open drive samplers consist of thin walled tubes which are driven or pushed into the soil at the bottom of the hole. (ex. Shelby Tube sampler)
6 Methods of SamplingThin-wall open-tube samplers (Shelby Tube Samplers) are used for soils that are particularly sensitive to sampling disturbance. They are suitable for fine soils up to a firm consistency, and free from large particles.Shelby Tubes are available in carbon steel and in stainless steel. Usual diameters are 3" or 4" OD.
10 Methods of Sampling Requirements to minimize disturbance to samples . Area ratio = (D2w-D2e) x 100%D2eArea ratio should be as low as possible. (<10%).It represents the amount of soil displaced.Inside clearance = (Ds-De) x 100%ratio De.
11 Methods of SamplingThe inside clearance allows elastic expansion of the sample and minimizes frictional drag on the sample.The inside clearance should be between 0.5% to 3%.The outside clearance = (Dw-Dt) x 100%ratio DtOutside clearance is necessary to reduce the driving force and resistance to withdrawal.The outside clearance should be between 0% and 2%.Diameter of samples should not be less than 38mm. (Generally between mm).Piston sampler (Osterberg sampler) not covered. Please refer to any book.
12 Rock coring Sampler consists of core barrel and bit is coring bit. Core barrel – single tube or double tube of various dia: EX, AX, BX, NX, etc.Recovery = Length of sample recovered x 100%Length of runRQD = Length of samples >= 4” x 100 %
14 SPT (Standard Penetration Test) IS:2131 – 1981 Method for Standard Penetration Test for Soils.Most important and most commonly used field testTypical equipment: drill rig, split spoon sampler, hammering equipment, casing pipe.
15 SPT Procedure Procedure: Drive a section of casing pipe. Complete wash boring and clean the holeReplace driving bit by split spoon sampler at the bottom end of the driving rodDrive the sampler by dropping a hammer of 63.5kg weight through a height of 75 cmThe number of blows required to penetrate three successive lengths of 15 cm are noted.The first 15 cm drive is considered as seating load and is ignored. The total number of blows required to penetrate the remaining 30 cm is called the blow count or penetration number N.Raise the sampler to the surface, open it and extract the sample.Drive the next length of casing and repeat the process until required depth is reached.At the end of the borehole, note the gwt after it stabilizes and then backfill the borehole.
16 Corrections to N valueOverburden Correction applied to N value based on chart by Peck, et. al. (varies from 0.45 to 2)N’=Cn * N where Cn is correction factorCorrection due to dilatancy for fine sand and silt below gwt having N’ > 15N” = *(N’-15)
17 Correlations between N values and soil properties CompactnessRelative Density (%)fo0 to 4Very Loose0-15< 284 to 10Loose28 -3010 to 30Medium Dense30 -36> 50Very Dense> 85> 41
18 Correlations between N values and soil properties ConsistencyNqu (kPa)Very Soft0 to 2< 25Soft2 to 425 to 50Medium Stiff4 to 850 to 100Stiff8 to 12100 to 200Very Stiff15 to 30200 to 400Hard> 30> 400
19 Other test methodsDCPT – Dynamic cone penetration test IS: (Method for subsurface sounding for soils: Parts I and II)CPT – Static Cone Penetration Test (Method for subsurface sounding for soils: Part 3 Static cone penetration test)Plate Load Test (Method of Load Test on Soils)
20 Borelog and geotechnical investigation report .