Presentation on theme: "Petroleum and why you might be redneck Petr- “rock” Oleum - “oil”"— Presentation transcript:
Petroleum and why you might be redneck Petr- “rock” Oleum - “oil”
It’s important to conserve petroleum resources But what is it made of? Crude oils underground have to be processed A petri dish of light crude oil A blob of crude washed up onto a beach after seeping out from underground
We separate the crude oil by transporting it to refineries Refined petroleum is a mix of hydrocarbons –Just H & C On oil tankers carrying 4.1 mil barrels (140 bil gallons) the crew uses bikes to get around. Cost around 1.4 bil to make
Cheapest way to transport TransAlaskan Pipeline 800 mile –Prudhoe bay - Valdez –Crosses mtn. ranges, fault lines, permafrost –Nixon authorized –Oil travels warm
Maintenance Can be surveyed by air in ~2 hours Has been attacked –1978 explosion Forest fires, earthquakes Used to be frequent spills, less now Pipeline on sliders where it crosses Denali fault
Signs you might be a redneck 2001 drunken local man Dan Lewis –Shot hole in weld –Leak ruined 2 football fields of land, –10K fine, 10 years in jail –Cost 17 mil to clean up –"I'll shoot it if I want. I'll put a hole right through it"
Plans for Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Could we pipe oil from Alaska to Washington? 1977 Justice Berger’s report –From Vancouver –5 mil. –40K pages –Political, social, and envi impact –Conclusion: Probably shouldn’t, but wait ten years.
Today Should gov’t give Alaska & Canada money to pay for such a pipeline? Political MESS. I mean MESS Indians have a big stake ExxonMobil, BP, and ConocoPhillips want it Texas Oil companies & ChevronTexaco don’t want $ going to support gas from Canada So Bush is against it. More gas, but aren’t we too dependant already?
Burning petrol = ½ of U.S. E needs An avg. U.S. Car travels 14,000 miles/ year Heating and making electricity Raw Material for stuff If both your dog and your wallet are on a chain…
From your experience What % of petrol is used for burning? What % is used for raw materials?
89% of petrol is used as fuel 7% is used for products and medicines 4% lubricants, road-paving For every gallon used to make something permanent and useful 5 gallons are burned
Combustion rxns Burning hydrocarbons means reacting them with O 2 and producing carbon dioxide gas, water vapor, and E These end up in Atm. It happens in your body
Burnt hydrocarbons are used up They take millions of years to reform It’s a nonrenewable resource
We have about 5% of the world’s reserve of oil but use 31%, Asia uses 27%, Europe uses 19% The middle east has 66% of the reserves.
Seperation by distillation If two mixed liquids have separate boiling points you can separate them. Usually smaller molecules are easier to boil.
Dif. sizes of hydrocarbons boil at dif. temps. and are refined by fractional distillation 15 story towers
As the boiling vapors rise they condense back into liquid form as they cool higher up The heaviest hydrocarbons never boil, –Called bottoms –Petroleum jelly, and road asphalt
Fractional distillation towers
Last year there was a fire at the world’s largest refinery Place employees 10s of thousands
World’s largest refinery –Venezuela 940,000 barrels per day (bpd) Exxon owns one in Baytown U.S. (pictured right) – 557,000 bpd If your mother has “ammo” on her Christmas list you might be from texas
Close by oil refineries In PA most refineries are by Philly Some are in top middle of state Historical One in Venango county One in WV across the border from Aliquippa right on the Ohio river –19,400 bpd
Components of petrol Part’s of petroleum have boiling points lower than 40 o C. –They only have 1-4 carbons –Weak intermolecular forces. –Used as heating fuels, plastics Gas, kerosene, oils –5-20 carbons If you have ever been in a fight over a hunting dog…
Carbon has 6 electrons 2 filling in first shell 4 valence open for bonding Gives it versatility Typically covalent bonds –Sharing electrons If you have ever stolen toilet paper…
Alkanes A string of carbon atoms each forming a single covalent bond with 4 other atoms Methane is simplest –Tetrahedron shape Branched chains are possible –Isomers – same formula dif. shape If you have ever shot an animal on a golf course…
Fuels and Climate Cold vs. hot means dif. fuel consumption Transport, storage issues What physical property of petroleum should engineers consider in this issue?
PA and Petrol History Titusville, 1859 first U.S. oil well Edwin Drake owned it Boom Town At one time had more millionares per K of people than anywhere else If you take a fishing pole into Sea World…
Energy Trace Take anything, a paper clip What events took place to produce one and get it into your hands? Where did the energy come from? Is the cost of paper clips related to the materials used or the energy used? Take a new car.
Fossil Fuels Petroleum, Natural Gas, Coal Carbon pressed from living matter in ancient seas 500 mya Lots of potential E We transduce the chemical E into movement, heat, light, sound Law of Conservation of E: energy is neither created nor destroyed. No reaction is 100% perfect some E is lost as heat. That’s why you’re 98.6
Automobile E conversions What kind of energy change happens from the gas tank to Engine Cylinder? Cylinder to Piston? Piston to Crankshaft? Crankshaft to Wheels?
How do cars lose E Only 25% of the E in gas is converted to useable horse power. The rest becomes heat we have to deal with Exhaust, engine frictions, cylinder cooling A car on the free way could generate enough heat to fill 2 houses
1.intake/induction stroke Gas/air mixture is sucked in 2.compression stroke Mixture is compressed 3.power stroke Mixture is ignited, expands 4.exhaust stroke Burnt mixture is expelled
Assignment Show the work for determining how far one family car drives in a week. How many miles can the car go on 1 gal? How much gas does the car use in a year?
If an avg. car uses 23 mpg and travels 14,000 miles a year… –How much fuel is used in a year? –If gas is 3.00 a gallon how much is spent? –If gas increases 10 cents how much more is spent? –See –See PetroleumFuelEconomy Worksheet –Collect each classes mileage and award class with lowest mpg
Altering Fuels –A barrel of crude is ~ 18% gasoline –It can be altered so that its 47% Cracking –Heat 16 C Kerosene to 600 o and it breaks into 2, 8 C octanes. –With a catalyst it’s only 500 –Catalytic Cracking Unit (Cat)
Engine Knock Gas is straight chain alkanes Some times in the cylinder the compressed gas blows from the pressure before the spark plug ignites it. Piston bangs against crankshaft at wrong time “pinging” or “knocking”
To fix engine knock An isomer of octane 2,2,4-trimethylpentane or isooctane for short is added and it doesn’t ping at all Why do you think its called 2,2,4-trimethylpentane
Octane Scale 100 is isooctane 0 is straight chain heptane Researchers test engines and engines under a load (towing) with dif. fuels to get an octane rating. Usually 80s -90s –An 80 rating gas has the same knock as 80% isooctane 20% heptane
Thomas Midgely the Horrible Working for GM he discovered tetraethyl lead reduced engine know –Improved octane rating by 3 or 4 –Lead is a neurotoxin and bad for you Drove King George mad –One of those things that isn’t in nature normally, we introduce a lot.
They knew it was unhealthy but GM, Du Pont, and Standard Oil started selling as much leaded gas as people would buy. –Workers at plants got poisoned –Spokesman said, “They probably went insane from working too hard.” If you have trophies for winning spitting contests…
Midgely had been severely poisoned Only handled the stuff when in front of reporters. Midgely went on to make CFC’s which caused the hole in the ozone layer. –Single organism whose had the biggest impact –Also from Beaver Falls
Oxygenated fuels Replaced adding lead Deliver less E per gallon But increase octane number while reducing pollutants More complete combustion, lower emissions
Methanol is a common additive –Can be made from corn, grass, wood –Saves oil –10 % ethanol 90% gas mixture: Gasohol –AKA E10 –Viable energy alternative –But how much E does it take to grow the corn? –Getting popular in tropical regions where its easy to grow –About ½ gas in U.S. Contains Ethanol
E85 85% ethanol 15% gas Used in midwest and Minnesota 70 cents cheaper per gallon for cars that can burn it. 27% less E per gallon but burns more efficiently.
MTBE Methyl tertiary-butyl ether has an octane number of 116. –Reduced air pollutants –Was most common additive in 90’s but –Mixes easy with water –Leakage from underground storage contaminated groundwater –Bad taste & odor –Smells like turpentine –A spoonful would ruin a swimming pool
Diesel fuel Density 850 g/L Gas 720 g/L –15% less Also releases 15% less Joules Easier to refine Pollutes more per unit, but burns more efficiently so less polluting over all Also more sulfur Rudolf Diesel
Laws for Diesel are becoming more strict
6K gallons used during NEXTEL cup 216,000 gal during 2006 season A NASCAR Gets 3 mpg Unregulated by EPA What if rules changed? An organic farmer is going to hate Monsanto & the big farms. And customers might not want GMO Other customers might want whatever is cheap.
How long’s oil going to last Controversy! Idea of peak oil (Hubbert, ’56), based on production rates, reserves and the history of discovery you can predict when we’ll have found as much oil as we’re going to find. –But which #’s to use? –www.peakoil.netwww.peakoil.net
The Economic Hiroshima In ’56 Hubbert was able to predict the oil shortage of the 70’s –Then Venezuala pushed up production and we bounced In ’74 he predicted ’95 would be another peak, but in the 80’s we started switching to sissy cars. Daimler’s smart car
After a well is ½ empty it takes more work (oil) to clean it out. –What happens when you use more oil to pump out less oil? –Prices rise
Graph showing a variety of predictions of peak oil
Pessimism on Peaking ’98 the King of Saudi Arabia said, "The oil boom is over and will not return... All of us must get used to a different lifestyle." – Neat guy, ruled from 82 – ’95 when he had a stroke. –Died 10 years later His 84 YEAR OLD bro the new king –22 kids, 4 sons –Our very good friends –¼ of the world’s oil is theirs Their Father the first monarch of Saudi had 37 sons and ~ 25 daughters ~ wives
Pessimists Texas Oil Tycoon Boone Pickens said it peaked in ’05 3 billionare 117 th richest in US Building US’s largest wind farm in Texas 2 ex wives, only 5 kids Association for Study of Peak Oil said it’ll peak in ‘10
Optimism Cambridge Energy Research Associates Think it’ll plateau and stay plateau’d for decades. Exxon execs’ think we’ve got at least 25 years USDOEnergy: Production is going up. OPEC hasn’t said anything definite
Cornucopian someone who believes that continued progress and provision of material items for mankind can be met by advances in technology The horn of plenty giveth.
Hirsch report Published Feb 05 For DOE Concludes…. World oil peaking is going to happen, and will likely be abrupt. Oil peaking will adversely affect global economies, particularly those most dependent on oil. Oil peaking presents a unique challenge (“it will be abrupt and revolutionary”). The problem is liquid fuels (growth in demand mainly from transportation sector). Mitigation efforts will require substantial time. 20 years is required to transition without substantial impacts A 10 year rush transition with moderate impacts is possible with extraordinary efforts from governments, industry, and consumers Late initiation of mitigation may result in severe consequences. Both supply and demand will require attention. It is a matter of risk management (mitigating action must come before the peak). Government intervention will be required. Economic upheaval is not inevitable (“given enough lead-time, the problems are soluble with existing technologies.”) More information is needed to more precisely determine the peak timeframe.
Scenarios Waiting until world oil production peaks before taking crash program action leaves the world with a significant liquid fuel deficit for more than two decades. Initiating a mitigation crash program 10 years before world oil peaking helps considerably but still leaves a liquid fuels shortfall roughly a decade after the time that oil would have peaked. Initiating a mitigation crash program 20 years before peaking appears to offer the possibility of avoiding a world liquid fuels shortfall for the forecast period.
Note a gallon gets you 44 miles in Germany, 22 miles in the states