Petroleum: Not usable…yet! Comes out as crude oil, which is petroleum pumped from underground
Why does crude oil need to be processed? Crude oil contains different types of hydrocarbons, which are molecular compounds that contain only atoms of hydrogen and carbon Different engines and boilers need different types of hydrocarbon to work effectively
What about diesel vs. gasoline? http://auto.howstuffworks.com/diesel1.htm Gasoline is lighter, less dense, more flammable and more volatile. Diesel fuel is heavier, denser, less flammable and less volatile. – More dense = more mpg
What do we use petroleum for? Most petroleum is used as fuel The average person drives 14,000 anually Fuel usage also includes providing heat and delivering energy to generate electricity Some petroleum based products include – CD’s, sports equipment, clothing, automobile parts, plastic charge cards, artificial limbs, prescription drugs
How much petroleum do we use for what? 89% of petroleum is used for burning as fuel 7% is used for producing new medications and plastics 4% is used as lubricants, road-paving materials and other products
What happens when petroleum is burned? When hydrocarbons burn, they react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy. It takes millions of years to replace petroleum, making it a nonrenewable resource
Who burns the most petroleum? Currently, China and the United States account for over 60% of the world’s petroleum consumption. While the United States only makes up 7% of the world’s population, it consumes more than Africa, Canada and Europe combined!
What is distillation and when would you use it? Distillation is a process used to separate liquids into their various components. Density is the first physical component scientist generally use to separate liquids – Density only works if the liquids are insoluble
Distillation Boiling point is another physical property scientist use to separate liquids Components with lower boiling points will boil faster than other liquids The evaporated liquid (distillate) will then condense back to a liquid before the next component boils
Example of How Distillation Works SubstanceFormulaBoiling Point (C) Methane-164 Propane Butane0 Pentane Hexane+68 Heptane Octane+126 Refer to pg. 220 to complete the chart below.
What differences do you see between the boiling points? Among the hydrocarbons, the intermolecular forces increases as the number of carbon atoms increase! This also has an effect on the boiling point.
What does this have to do with crude oil? Strong intermolecular forces Weak intermolecular forces **Crude oil is made up of different hydrocarbons.