Presentation on theme: "Fossil Fuels Chapter 12 Section 1. Standard S 6.3.b Students know that when fuel is consumed, most of the energy released becomes heat energy S6.3.b Students."— Presentation transcript:
Fossil Fuels Chapter 12 Section 1
Standard S 6.3.b Students know that when fuel is consumed, most of the energy released becomes heat energy S6.3.b Students know the utility of energy sources is determined by factors that are involved in converting these sources to useful forms and the consequences of the conversion process.
Language of the Discipline Fuel Energy transformation Combustion Fossil fuel HydrocarbonPetroleumRefinerypetrochemical
Anticipatory Set How did you travel to school today? Most of you got here by car. What causes your car to move in the first place? What must all cars have in order to run?
Energy Transformation and Fuels Rub your hands together fast. What happens after 20 seconds? Got warmer right? How? It is caused by friction Energy transformation: a change from one form of energy to another Fuels provide energy as the result of a chemical change
Combustion When fuels are burned, chemical energy is release as heat and light. These forms of energy can be used to generate other forms of energy such as motion or electricity. Gasoline through forms of energy powers the brakes in your car. Read subheading “Combustion” on page 479.
Electricity In an electrical power plant, turbines are turned using mechanical energy Chemical energy generates electricity Thermal energy is produced by burning fuel Mechanical energy is when steams turns a fan (example)
Fossil Fuels 3 major fossil fuels are: coal, oil and natural gas Fossil Fuel: energy rich substances formed fro the remains of organisms Hydrocarbons: chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen are energy - rich Read Fossil Fuels paragraph on page 480 Pencils up when you are done
Coal Formed from plant remains Coal makes about 23% of the fuel used in the US Goes to electrical power plants It has to be mined or removed from the ground Machines then chop the coa into chunks Coal mining is a dangerous job Many suffer from lung disease
Coal Plentiful fossil fuel and inexpensive Easy to transport Provides lots of energy when burned Mining can increase erosion Burning coal results in air pollution. Review on page 481 the process of coal formation
Oil A thick, black, liquid fossil fuel Form from the remains of small organisms that lived in oceans and seas Petroleum is another name for oil Most of our energy production comes from oil Soil deposits are located underground in tiny holes in sandstone
Oil When oil is first pumped out of the ground it is called crude oil It must then be refined It must be heated and separated into fuels and other products (refinery) Petrochemicals are compounds that are made from oil Used to make plastic and synthetic materials: paints, medicines and cosmetics
Oil Low cost in the past made it an important resource in our economy It all produces air pollution Oil spills sometimes pollute the oceans and harm sea life Oil supplies are being used up faster than new supplies are being discovered. Read “Oil summary” on page 482
Natural Gas Mixture of methane and other gases Pipelines are used to transport natural gas If all the gas poplines in the US were connected it would reach to the moon and back- twice Can be compressed into a liquid and transported on ships Also used in trucks and buses
Natural Gas Several advantages: produces larges amounts of energy Easy to transport Disadvantage: highly flammable A leak can cause a violent explosion and fire Gas companies help to prevent dangerous explosions Natural gas has no odor at all. They can a chemical to the gas to detect a gas leak Read the summary on page 483
Fuel Supply and Demand Renewable or non-renewable Fossil fuels take hundreds of years to form, they are considered non-renewable sources. Worlds demands for oil and natural gas have been growing faster than new supplies are being found. Leads to higher prices. Eventually other types of energy resources will be needed. If fossil fuels are used up more rapidly than they are formed eventually the reserves will be used up. Read summary on page 484
Checking For Understanding What energy transformations occur in a car’s engine? What are hydrocarbons? What is one advantage of using natural gas?
Guided Practice Independent Practice Workbook page Stop! Have your answers checked by teacher! Study Guide Questions