2StandardS 6.3.b Students know that when fuel is consumed, most of the energy released becomes heat energyS6.3.b Students know the utility of energy sources is determined by factors that are involved in converting these sources to useful forms and the consequences of the conversion process.
3Language of the Discipline FuelRefineryEnergy transformationpetrochemicalCombustionFossil fuelHydrocarbonPetroleum
4Anticipatory Set How did you travel to school today? Most of you got here by car.What causes your car to move in the first place?What must all cars have in order to run?
5Energy Transformation and Fuels Rub your hands together fast. What happens after 20 seconds?Got warmer right?How? It is caused by frictionEnergy transformation: a change from one form of energy to anotherFuels provide energy as the result of a chemical change
6CombustionWhen fuels are burned, chemical energy is release as heat and light.These forms of energy can be used to generate other forms of energy such as motion or electricity.Gasoline through forms of energy powers the brakes in your car. Read subheading “Combustion” on page 479.
7ElectricityIn an electrical power plant, turbines are turned using mechanical energyChemical energy generates electricityThermal energy is produced by burning fuelMechanical energy is when steams turns a fan (example)
8Fossil Fuels 3 major fossil fuels are: coal, oil and natural gas Fossil Fuel: energy rich substances formed fro the remains of organismsHydrocarbons: chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen are energy - richRead Fossil Fuels paragraph on page 480Pencils up when you are done
9Coal Formed from plant remains Coal makes about 23% of the fuel used in the USGoes to electrical power plantsIt has to be mined or removed from the groundMachines then chop the coa into chunksCoal mining is a dangerous jobMany suffer from lung disease
10Coal Plentiful fossil fuel and inexpensive Easy to transport Provides lots of energy when burnedMining can increase erosionBurning coal results in air pollution.Review on page 481 the process of coal formation
12Oil A thick, black, liquid fossil fuel Form from the remains of small organisms that lived in oceans and seasPetroleum is another name for oilMost of our energy production comes from oilSoil deposits are located underground in tiny holes in sandstone
13Oil When oil is first pumped out of the ground it is called crude oil It must then be refinedIt must be heated and separated into fuels and other products (refinery)Petrochemicals are compounds that are made from oilUsed to make plastic and synthetic materials: paints, medicines and cosmetics
14Oil Low cost in the past made it an important resource in our economy It all produces air pollutionOil spills sometimes pollute the oceans and harm sea lifeOil supplies are being used up faster than new supplies are being discovered.Read “Oil summary” on page 482
16Natural Gas Mixture of methane and other gases Pipelines are used to transport natural gasIf all the gas poplines in the US were connected it would reach to the moon and back- twiceCan be compressed into a liquid and transported on shipsAlso used in trucks and buses
17Natural Gas Several advantages: produces larges amounts of energy Easy to transportDisadvantage: highly flammableA leak can cause a violent explosion and fireGas companies help to prevent dangerous explosionsNatural gas has no odor at all.They can a chemical to the gas to detect a gas leakRead the summary on page 483
19Fuel Supply and Demand Renewable or non-renewable Fossil fuels take hundreds of years to form, they are considered non-renewable sources.Worlds demands for oil and natural gas have been growing faster than new supplies are being found.Leads to higher prices.Eventually other types of energy resources will be needed.If fossil fuels are used up more rapidly than they are formed eventually the reserves will be used up.Read summary on page 484
20Checking For Understanding What energy transformations occur in a car’s engine?What are hydrocarbons?What is one advantage of using natural gas?
21Guided Practice Independent Practice Workbook pageStop! Have your answers checked by teacher!Study Guide Questions