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Specialised Property. Introduction Special characteristics of the property are central to the business’ ability to generate profit ‘Trading’ properties.

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Presentation on theme: "Specialised Property. Introduction Special characteristics of the property are central to the business’ ability to generate profit ‘Trading’ properties."— Presentation transcript:

1 Specialised Property

2 Introduction Special characteristics of the property are central to the business’ ability to generate profit ‘Trading’ properties might be regarded as specialised because they are –purpose built –owner-occupied –have some monopoly value due to their unique location legal status (planning permission or license to trade) Attributes of the property with regard to the business operating therein are more important than the flexibility of the property for change of use

3 Specialised Properties Specialised trading properties are not usually held on a leasehold basis because of the significant investment in fixtures, fitting, furniture and equipment Consequently there is not much rental evidence Where let, leases tend to be longer and user clauses more restrictive Improvements and fit-outs are often more expensive and more frequently undertaken than on standard commercial premises –check the handling of tenants’ improvements at rent review Some small businesses might attract purchasers willing to pay a price that includes a non-pecuniary return

4 Why value specialised properties? Loan security Stock market listing Mergers and acquisitions Securitisation Agency Consultancy Restricted Valuations: Market Value Market Value subject to special assumptions 180/90 days in which to complete a sale Accounts or records of trade not available Business open and licences/registration retained Business closed and licences/registration lost or in jeopardy

5 Hotels Proposal for Travelodge on Slough Trading Estate: 22,000 sq ft equates to 70 bedrooms Pay max of £3,800 per room 25 Year lease. No breaks. Reviews every 5 years at RPI 6 months rent free Yield 6.25% £120 psf Build Cost (excluding fees, demo and planning) Marginal returns and we needed to get to £4,300 per room and let a restaurant of 3,500 sq ft on the ground floor at £22.50 psf to hit profits of 20%+ That’s why I recommended we did the deal with 99p stores instead, which is now on site

6 Pubs Majority of trading potential conferred by licence Therefore included in sale price (not separate) Investment market firmly established Large numbers of tenanted places on market with commercial leases Likened (in the main) to secondary retail Freehold managed houses (Plc as employer) - likened to good secondary / prime retail Tied house profit derived from 3 sources: –Wholesale (beer, liquor, some food) –Retail (beer, liquor, some food) –Tied rent Free house profit derived from 2 sources –Retail profit / discount (beer, liquor, food) –Machine income

7 Pub Valuation Methods 1.The Kennedy Method (Profits on beer supply + rent) x YP This was a Lands Tribunal method looking directly at wholesale profit and Tied Rental Income. It is still an interesting method to be applied to the New Pub Estate Companies, whose income streams are very similar. 2.Investment Method Rack-rented: rent payable under commercially acceptable lease x YP Reversionary: term and reversion approach 3.Profits Method Freehold: ANP (EBITDA) x YP (5-8) Leasehold: ANP (EBITDA) x YP (1-2) 4.Rental Comparison Comparable (perhaps secondary retail) rent per square foot, or % of turnover rent

8 Pub Valuation Example (1) Valuation of the freehold interest in an attractive country freehouse of appeal to owner-occupier Turnover: Food£35,000 Liquor£40,000 Machines£ 3,000 £78,000 Net profit to proprietor @ 24% x 0.24 £18,720 Beer Discount 60 barrels x £20£ 1,200 £19,920 x YP perp at 14% (based on comps) 7.1429 Valuation£142,286

9 Pub Valuation Example (2) Valuation of a town pub, recently let on a 15 year FRI lease with a beer tie of interest to a regional brewer / multiple operator Rent calculation TurnoverFood£ 10,000 Liquor£120,000 £130,000 Rent agreed @ 14% t/o x 0.14 £18,200 Wholesale profit 200 barrels - 45 barrels (guest): = 155 barrels x £47.50 £ 7,362 £25,832 x YP perp @ 15% 6.6666 £172,212 Pubs often valued by reference to “barrelage” - enables valuer to estimate likely turnover and profit - a short cut comparison approach

10 Petrol Stations Focusing on self-contained main road /motorway facilities (as opposed to “services”) These facilities can be broadly classified as –Those with large "throughput" - worth Oil Companies acquiring –Those with lesser "throughput" -worth supplying Outlets operated either through: –Direct Purchase of existing facilities - operated by "Majors“ (refiners/wholesalers)- Esso, Gulf, Shell, Gulf, etc.) –Direct Purchase of Site and Development - operated by Majors –Purchase and Leaseback - supplied by Majors as wholesaler and operated by dealer / retailer paying a "tied" or low rent The market is dominated by the Majors who own and operate only where a "threshold" throughput can be achieved. Below a certain figure, Majors will become suppliers. Therefore a valuer must be able to classify the facility (according to throughput) and understand the tenure arrangements On the petrol sales, must determine source of income: –Wholesale profit only? –Wholesale profit and tied rental? –Rebate arrangement?

11 Petrol Station Investigations Relevant factors Facility –Age, depreciation, obsolescence –Visibility –Layout, forecourt size, pump arrangement, canopy –dealer management standards –pricing policy –type / grade of fuel sold (branding) –opening hours Road –category of road: (M’way, arterial, secondary etc..) –diversions (temporary and permanent) –traffic volume –Speed limits - fast roads reduce “turn -in” especially where visibility and signage are poor –Crossing Factor (% offside traffic turn-ins) Competition –from new stations (type of competition) –expansion or closure of existing stations and other facilities Demographics –Local population size –car ownership percentages

12 Petrol Station Valuation Estimate Throughput Classify facility in terms of likely trading potential and trading structure Examine factors currently influencing ability to trade –Average turn-in (DoT) Busy Trunk road = 3 to 4% Motorway = 12 to 15% –Average petrol purchase = 5 gallons / customer (DoT / Commercial) –Self-service and use of credit cards increase 25% (DoT / Commercial) Example Dual carriageway; 17,500 vehicles per day; stations on both sides over 120 mile stretch @ 4 mile intervals = choice of 30 stations without crossing. Assume average turn-in to a particular station of 3.33% –17,500 vehicles / day x 3.5% turn-in: 612.5 vehicles x 5 galls = 3,063 galls / day (approx 955,500 galls pa (6 days)) Where the facility is worth acquiring/operating, the valuer will capitalise throughput at a standard rate and capitalise remaining facilities (e.g. shop, car- wash) Where worth supplying, then tied rent arrangement might operate

13 Golf Club Valuation

14 Golf club valuation by profits method Variety of methods used - Profits most reliable indicator Cost approach provides useful check Never employ profits approach in isolation “stand back and look” Imperative to classify facility to enable estimate of reasonable maintainable turnover Classification (municipal, daily fee, resort, semi-private, private) Check list (tees, fairways, greens, roughs, bunkers, practice facilities, watering systems, clubhouse facilities, parking, maintenance of buildings, fairways, greens, buildings & equipment) Sources of income and expenditure (estimate where necessary) Capitalisation rate? combination of mortgage and equity rates (effectively opportunity cost or weighted average cost of capital) Limited alternative use

15  Assume net adjusted net profit after allowing for expenditure on ASF to replace tenant's capital and interest is £475,000 p.a.  Capitalisation rate comprises a mortgage and an equity element  For the mortgage element, assume o 20 year term o Rate of 9% o Therefore, annuity £1 w.p. = 0.1095  For the equity element, assume o Target return of 20% Golf club profits method valuation example

16  Now need to weight the mortgage and equity elements  Assume 75% LTV  Mortgage (annuity)= 0.1095 x 0.75 = 0.0821  Equity return= 0.20 x 0.25 = 0.0500  Weighted average cap rate = 0.1322 Say, 13.22% Valuation=Net adjusted profit cap rate =£475,000 0.1322 =£3,593,040 Say, £3.6m Golf club profits method valuation example

17 Trading information can be difficult to obtain Use comparison method as an alternative Obtain number of rounds played per annum and level of green fees From comparable(s) determine: –Price per round (PPR); Capital Value number of members x ave number of round per player –Green fee multiplier (GFM); PPR / average green fee Apply to subject property Valuation by sales comparison

18  Analysis of comparable facilities has been performed for facilities of the appropriate class (say semi-private)  1500 members @ average of 22 rounds per annum per member (market average)  Average green fees @ £15.00 per round  Comparable recently sold for £5m Valuation by sales comparison

19 Analysis of comparable evidence: PPR = £5m / 22 x 1500 = £151.51 / round p.a. GFM = £151.51 / £15 = 10.10 Valuation of subject:  1,400 members with average green fees of £13.00 per round  PPR= £13.00 x GFM = £13.00 x 10.10 = £131.30 / round p.a.  Valuation= £131.30 x 1,400 x 22 = £4,044,040 Say, £4m Valuation by sales comparison


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