Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER NINE INTRODUCTION TO INCOME- PRODUCING PROPERTIES: LEASES AND THE MARKET FOR SPACE."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER NINE INTRODUCTION TO INCOME- PRODUCING PROPERTIES: LEASES AND THE MARKET FOR SPACE
Chapter Objectives Major property types Economic forces Supply and demand relationships Location analysis Competitive nature of real estate Importance of leases
Classification of Real Estate Uses Single family Multi- family Office Retail Industrial Recreation Institutional Mixed use
Economic Base Analysis- Location Quotients RE- Regional Employment USE- U.S. Employment j- Industry Classification TOT- total LQ= (R.E. j /RE TOT ) / (USE j /USE TOT )
Economic Base Analysis- Location Quotients Continued If LQ is greater than 1.0, then industry is base or driver industry If LQ is less than 1.0, then industry is usually referred to a supporting industry
Housing Demand and Supply Factors Housing factors of demand include: –New household formations, age composition of new households, household income, and mortgage credit conditions. Housing factors of supply include: –Prices of factors of production, productivity factors, number of builders in the market, and credit conditions.
Retail Demand and Supply Factors Retail factors of demand include: –Number of consumers, customer income, consumer tastes and preferences, prices of substitute products, and credit conditions. Retail factors of supply include: –Prices and productivity of factors of production, number of developers, developer expectations, and credit conditions.
Office Demand and Supply Factors Office factors of demand include: –Number of local firms, types of business of local firms, growth in local firms, and office space square feet per employee. Office factors of supply include: –Similar to retail market supply factors.
Location and User- Tenants Firms competing for space will result in the highest rents possible for the most profitable locations Locations will tend to be determined by clusters of users with similar financial structures that relate in similar ways to a given location
Location and User- Tenants Continued Locations with the greatest appeal to users will produce higher rents and also highest densities Firms that are cost- sensitive are competitive for locations
Location and User- Tenants Continued Location decision factors of household: –Users seek to avoid transportation costs, thus having incentives to locate close to economic centers –The price of land decreases with the distance from the economic activity centers within urban areas, and buyers substitute land quantity for location
Location and User- Tenants Continued Location decision factors of firms: –Transportation costs Proximity to customers Proximity to suppliers Proximity to work force –Land requirements –Type of service or product High- density / low- density demand Weight- gaining / weight- losing production
The Business of Real Estate Lease v.s. purchase Most tenants find leasing to be more cost- effective than owning Owning requires capital commitment and risks of ownership Owning reduces operating flexibility Maintenance An economic market for real estate services has emerged
The Asset Market Real estate values vary according to their physical characteristics, their locations, and the economic conditions of the market. Real estate values depend on income expectations and its relative riskiness.
Leases- Features and Characteristics Date Term Parties, lessee, and lessor Legal description Allowed uses Restrictions on alterations Responsibility for maintenance and repair
Leases- Features and Characteristics Continued Any restrictions on operations of tenants business Assignment or subletting Use of common areas Adequate insurance Default Base rent and any increases Gross lease v.s. net lease
Leases- Features and Characteristics Continued TI allowance Rent concessions Lease renewal options
Lease Demand and Supply Demand and supply model with vacancy Va= S-D Natural vacancy Rents –Equilibrium rent –Net contract rent –Effective contract rent
Lease Demand and Supply Continued Physical and financial asset markets Functions of space markets: –To allocate existing space –To expand or contract space to meet conditions –To determine new uses for land Demand and supply model with vacancy Va= S-D –Natural vacancy
Financial Content of Leases Base rent Step up provisions (CPI) Percentage rent Maximum rent Overage rent Gross lease Net lease Expense stop
Responsibility for Expenses Gross or full service- owner pays all expenses Net- tenant pays all expenses Expenses stop- owner pays up to the “stop” expenses in excess of the stop are “passes through” to tenants –The stop is typically the expenses per s.f. during the first year of the lease –There can be a “cap” on the amount passed through
Example of Expense Stop A tenant has an expenses stop of $5 per s.f. based on expenses the first year of the lease Expenses per s.f. are currently $7 per s.f. and the tenant has 15,000 s.f. of leaseable area How much does the owner and tenant pay in expenses for this tenant’s space? –The owner pays $5 x 15,000= $75,000 –The tenant pays ($7-$5) x 15,000= $30,000
Financial Content of Leases Continued Concessions- base rent, TI allowance, etc. Signage Non- compete clause Lender approval of major leases Load factor Load factor for floor= Rental area per floor Usable area per floor Effective rent