1-1 16-1 1 Key Concepts and Skills Be able to compute the operating and cash cycles and understand why they are important Understand the different types of short- term financial policy Understand the essentials of short-term financial planning
1-2 16-2 2 Chapter Outline Tracing Cash and Net Working Capital The Operating Cycle and the Cash Cycle Some Aspects of Short-Term Financial Policy The Cash Budget Short-Term Borrowing A Short-Term Financial Plan
1-3 16-3 3 Sources and Uses of Cash Sources of Cash –Obtaining financing: Increase in long-term debt Increase in equity Increase in current liabilities –Selling assets Decrease in current assets Decrease in fixed assets Uses of Cash –Paying creditors or stockholders Decrease in long-term debt Decrease in equity Decrease in current liabilities –Buying assets Increase in current assets Increase in fixed assets
1-4 16-4 4 The Operating Cycle The time it takes to receive inventory, sell it, and collect on the receivables generated from the sale of the inventory Operating cycle = inventory period + accounts receivable period –Inventory period = time inventory sits on the shelf –Accounts receivable period = time it takes to collect on receivables
1-5 16-5 5 The Cash Cycle The time between payment for inventory and receipt from the sale of inventory Cash cycle = operating cycle – accounts payable period –Accounts payable period = time between receipt of inventory and payment for it The cash cycle measures how long we need to finance inventory and receivables
1-7 16-7 7 Example Information ItemBeginningEndingAverage Inventory200,000300,000250,000 Accounts Receivable 160,000200,000180,000 Accounts Payable 75,000100,00087,500 Net Sales = $1,150,000Cost of Goods Sold = $820,000
1-8 16-8 8 Example: Operating Cycle Inventory period –Average inventory = (200,000+300,000)/2 = 250,000 –Inventory turnover = 820,000 / 250,000 = 3.28 times –Inventory period = 365 / 3.28 = 111 days Receivables period –Average receivables = (160,000+200,000)/2 = 180,000 –Receivables turnover = 1,150,000 / 180,000 = 6.39 times –Receivables period = 365 / 6.39 = 57 days Operating cycle = 111 + 57 = 168 days
1-9 16-9 9 Example: Cash Cycle Accounts Payable Period = 365 / payables turnover –Payables turnover = COGS / Average AP PT = 820,000 / 87,500 = 9.4 times –Accounts payables period = 365 / 9.4 = 39 days Cash cycle = 168 – 39 = 129 days So, we have to finance our inventory and receivables for 129 days
1-10 16-10 10 Short-Term Financial Policy Flexible (Conservative) Policy –Large amounts of cash and marketable securities –Large amounts of inventory –Liberal credit policies (large accounts receivable) –Relatively low levels of short-term liabilities High liquidity Restrictive (Aggressive) Policy –Low cash and marketable security balances –Low inventory levels –Little or no credit sales (low accounts receivable) –Relatively high levels of short-term liabilities Low liquidity
1-11 16-11 11 Carrying versus Shortage Costs Carrying costs –Opportunity cost of owning current assets versus long-term assets that pay higher returns –Cost of storing larger amounts of inventory Shortage costs –Order costs – the cost of ordering additional inventory or transferring cash –Stock-out costs – the cost of lost sales due to lack of inventory, including lost customers
1-12 16-12 12 Temporary versus Permanent Assets Are current assets temporary or permanent? –Both! Permanent current assets refer to the level of current assets that the company retains regardless of any seasonality in sales Temporary current assets refer to the additional current assets that are added when sales are expected to increase on a seasonal basis
1-14 16-14 14 Choosing the Best Policy Best policy will be a combination of flexible and restrictive policies Things to consider –Cash reserves –Maturity hedging –Relative interest rates Compromise policy – borrow short-term to meet peak needs, and maintain a cash reserve for emergencies
1-16 16-16 16 Cash Budget Primary tool in short-run financial planning –Identify short-term needs and potential opportunities –Identify when short-term financing may be required How it works –Identify sales and cash collections –Identify various cash outflows –Subtract outflows from inflows and determine investing and financing needs
1-17 16-17 17 Example: Cash Budget Information Expected Sales by quarter (millions) Q1: $57; Q2: $66; Q3: $66; Q4: $90 Beginning Accounts Receivable = $30 Average collection period = 30 days Purchases from suppliers = 50% of next quarter’s estimated sales Accounts payable period = 45 days Wages, taxes, and other expenses = 25% of sales Interest and dividends = $5 million per quarter Major expansion planned for quarter 2 costing $35 million Beginning cash balance = $5 million with minimum cash balance of $2 million
1-19 16-19 19 Example: Cash Budget – Cash Disbursements Q1Q2Q3Q4 Payment of A/P = 50% of sales 28.5033.00 45.00 Wages, taxes, other expenses 14.2516.50 22.50 Capital Expenditures35.00 Long-term financing (interest and dividends) 5.00 Total Disbursements47.7589.5054.5072.50
1-20 16-20 20 Example: Cash Budget – Net Cash Flow and Cash Balance Q1Q2Q3Q4 Total Cash Collections68.0063.0066.0082.00 Total Cash Disbursements47.7589.5054.5072.50 Net Cash Flow20.25(26.50)11.509.5 Beginning Cash Balance5.0025.25(1.25)10.25 Net Cash Inflow20.25(26.50)11.509.50 Ending Cash Balance25.25(1.25)10.2519.75 Minimum Cash Balance-2.00 Cumulative surplus (deficit) 23.25(3.25)8.2517.75
1-21 16-21 21 Short-Term Borrowing Unsecured loans –Line of credit – prearranged agreement with a bank that allows the firm to borrow up to a certain amount on a short-term basis –Committed – formal legal arrangement that may require a commitment fee and generally has a floating interest rate –Non-committed – informal agreement with a bank that is similar to credit card debt for individuals –Revolving credit – non-committed agreement with a longer time between evaluations Secured loans – loan secured by receivables, inventory, or both
1-22 16-22 22 Example: Factoring Selling receivables to someone else at a discount Example: You have an average of $1 million in receivables and you borrow money by factoring receivables with a discount of 2.5%. The receivables turnover is 12 times per year. What is the APR? –Period rate =.025/.975 = 2.564% –APR = 12(2.564%) = 30.769% What is the effective rate? –EAR = 1.02564 12 – 1 = 35.502%
1-23 16-23 23 Short-Term Financial Plan Q1Q2Q3Q4 Beginning Cash5.0025.252.0010.05 Net Cash Inflow20.25(26.50)11.509.50 New Short-Term Debt0.003.250.00 Interest on Short-Term Debt0.00 0.200.00 Short-Term Debt Repayment0.00 3.250.00 Ending Cash Balance25.252.0010.0519.55 Minimum Cash Balance-2.00 Cumulative Surplus (Deficit)23.250.008.0517.55 Beginning Short-Term Debt0.000003.250.00 Change in Short-Term Debt0.003.25-3.250.00 Ending Short-Term Debt0.003.250.00
1-24 16-24 24 Quick Quiz Suppose your average inventory is $10,000, your average receivables balance is $9,000, and your average payables balance is $4,000. Net sales are $100,000 and cost of goods sold is $50,000. –What are the operating cycle and the cash cycle? What are the differences between flexible and restrictive short-term financial policies? What factors do we need to consider when choosing a financial policy? What factors go into determining a cash budget and why is it valuable?
1-25 16-25 25 Comprehensive Problem With average accounts receivable of $5 million, and credit sales of $24 million, you factor receivables by discounting them 2%. What is the effective rate of interest?
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