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Multicultural Issues in Psychology Introduction to Asian-American Culture Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D. Licensed Clinical Psychologist ChristianMentalHealth.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Multicultural Issues in Psychology Introduction to Asian-American Culture Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D. Licensed Clinical Psychologist ChristianMentalHealth.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multicultural Issues in Psychology Introduction to Asian-American Culture Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D. Licensed Clinical Psychologist ChristianMentalHealth.com Northwest College Graduate Psychology 2002

2 Session 2-2

3 Lesson of the movie China was weak Because Men in China were weak “Sick Men of Asia 東亞病夫” vs. America’s “Washington” & “Lincoln”

4 Chinese Communism & Psychological Effects Psychological effects on the Chinese people in the mainland Common Psychological Effects (PTSD features) –P–P–P–Pain and tragedy: “Eating Bitterness” “Survival for the fittest” –F–F–F–Fears-safety: Unable to control or predict future political events –M–M–M–Mistrust: Disruption of “Basic Trust Bonding” Parent-Child –T–T–T–Trauma-Bonding: “Good & Bad” Reinforces family living –P–P–P–Passive-Aggressiveness: “Back Door” “Get around the system” –E–E–E–Encouraged “Mindlessness” “Selflessness: “Dumbing Down” –D–D–D–Deprivation of resources: “Entitlement” expectations –“–“–“–“Blame” mentality: Unable to self-reflect, grandiosity –“–“–“–“Flee at all cost” “Make it no matter what”

5 Psychological effects on the Chinese people off the mainland Survivors’ guilt: Grief for family members in mainland Estrangement & Separation of family members –P–P–P–Political ideas separate family member for life –B–B–B–Broken families: uncle & niece constitute a family “The Abandoned” syndrome –“–“–“–“You owe me”: “It costs so much to go home!” –S–S–S–Scheme & scandals: To milk money from abroad

6 Psychological effects on the Chinese people in Taiwan They escaped the communists take over of the mainland –S–S–S–Self-determination: Starting over –P–P–P–Preferred to be called “Taiwanese” not Chinese –W–W–W–Wanting to be independent but fear of Chinese invasion Psychological effects on the Chinese migration –D–D–D–Determination to rebuild at all cost: Casualties –A–A–A–Anti-Communists, anti-Japanese –O–O–O–Only the well to do or intellectuals can emigrate

7 Session Recap Friday, March 8 Friday, March 8 –Show movie “To Live” also known as “Lifetimes” –Introduction to the last fifty years of modern day China –Introduction to the specific political movements »Psychological effects on the Chinese people on the mainland »Psychological effects on the Chinese people off the mainland »Psychological effects on the Chinese people in Taiwan »Psychological effects on the Chinese migration Saturday, March 9 Saturday, March 9 –Continue with Chinese cosmology

8 Fundamental Cultural Concepts Relationships of 3-Dynamic-Forces (三勢) –H–H–H–Heaven, Earth & Person: 天地人 Life goal: Master the balance of the three Powers –天–天–天–天地人:天時,地利,人和 (三和) Do not upset the spiritual balance in the relationships of these Triadic Forces (三和) Physical (Geomantrics) Feng-Shui (風 水) –I–I–I–Integrate People with nature & ergonomics (Yin-Yan) Spiritual Balance (陰 陽 變 數)

9 What is Asian-Chinese culture? Asian-Chinese Asian-Chinese (Asian: Ethnic Chinese) is an extremely diversed group of Asians ethnically from all over Asian with different cultural, religious, economic and political backgrounds. Koreans, Japanese, Chinese, Taiwanese, South-East Asians Asians (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Thai, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia) As As diversed as we are : are : There are common threads: Rice, Chop-sticks, Family Values, Education, Arts, with diversed ethnic subcultures

10 Asian-Chinese Cultural Understanding Life is a stage: Role-play 人生如舞台 Being a Person: 做人=做戲 Life is about On-stage, Off-stage: 上台,下台 –I–I–I–In an interpersonal shameful situation, it is known as “hard to get off stage” 難下台 –T–T–T–To help, provide a graceful exit: 下台階 Detested Characters (animal-temperament) –H–H–H–Human-faced, Animal hearted 人 人 人 人面獸心 –W–W–W–Wild-animal put in a man’s dress 衣冠禽獸

11 Asian-American Cultural Understanding Filial Piety (most favored virtue): Education 老子,孝順,老子文=教 Favors sons over daughters:重男輕女 –子–子–子–子承父業 –女–女–女–女子無才便是德 Conformity & Self-Denial:克己服禮為仁 Gentlemen vs. the Conceited:小人君子

12 Early Immigrant Pattern Early Chinese immigrants as laborers Early Chinese immigrants as laborers –Driven by economic and political unrest –Risk takers and outcasts from their local communities –Mostly men and very few women Later Chinese immigrants as family builders Later Chinese immigrants as family builders –Bachelors take brides from their own village –Couples strive to be economically independent »“Mom-Pop” stores: Groceries, laudries, restaurants Intellectuals: Exchange-Foreign students who stayed Intellectuals: Exchange-Foreign students who stayed

13 Current Immigrant Pattern Later Chinese immigrants were “investors” Driven by political unrest: Hong Kong 1997 Driven by political unrest: Hong Kong 1997 –Economic uncertainties –Refugees from China: Refugees from Hong Kong “Brain-drain” Skilled immigrants “Brain-drain” Skilled immigrants –“The best and the brightest” –The real “bright” will choose to remain »“Political” background and support

14 Patterns of Immigration Bachelor laborer Laborer and his village (mail order) bride Children of laborer and village bride Bright scholar from big cities at ivy league Foreign students who stayed Pre-post 1997 political refugees –B–B–B–Bosses and professional Children of Shanghainese elites: ivy league

15 Asian-American Culture & Philosophies (* Local-Domestic Origins) *Confucianism 儒 Buddhism 釋 *Taoism 道 Western-Christianity 耶 *Self-Material-Pragmatism 錢

16 The Five-Hierarchical Harmonious Relationships (The Five-Orders “Wu Lun”) 五倫 Copyright (C) Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D

17 Order 1: The King and his Subjects 君要臣死, 臣不死, 不忠也 If the king decrees death to his subject, if he doesn’t kill himself; it is not loyalty Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism: Do as the king says, obey –Reinforces –Reinforces dependency : dependency : “Emperor's new clothes” –Hypocrisy: –Hypocrisy: “Public self vs. Private self” “Self-identity” –Externalized –Externalized locus of control: Reduced personal responsibility The The all-powerful king: analogous with god Deified Deified king: Idolized-worshipped the king

18 Order 2: Father and Son 父要子亡, 父要子亡, 子不亡, 子不亡, 不孝也 If father wants his son to die, if he doesn’t kill himself; it is not filial piety Fatherhood Fatherhood equals Kingdom government Generalized Generalized authority to the elderly : elderly : Wisdom Authoritarianism : Authoritarianism : Do as the father says, obey –Reinforces –Reinforces dependency: “Must please father” –Externalized –Externalized locus of control: Reduced personal responsibility

19 Filial Piety Resulting Resulting virtue of a harmonious relationship between father and child is Filial Piety First-born First-born son is most valued: first-born son is the first child that can carry on the family lineage Fathers Fathers have unquestioned authority over their children –have –have the right to the lives of their children –The –The reasoning is that, “They are my own.” This This virtue gave rise to patriarchy and nepotism Ancestor-worship Ancestor-worship (Idolization of ancestors) –Complex –Complex of respect and fear for the deceased

20 Reciprocity-Entitlement-Empathy Reciprocity (Family Culture Demands It) –D–D–D–Duty > Personal Desire = Sacrifice; Payback –T–T–T–Trauma Re-Enactment of Mother-In-Laws Entitlement (Takes It For Granted) –D–D–D–Do It, Give It, Or Else! (Shame-Guilt-Injury) Empathy (Lack of) “Form > Will” –D–D–D–Do It-Perform It-You Don’t Have to Like It –M–M–M–My Way > Your Needs (Self > Others)


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