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Page 1 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Models of Development and Mental Health Lecture 1: Introduction & Overview
Page 2 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Models of Development and Mental Health 9 lectures Essay Independent Study Examination Paper (Answer one of three)
Page 3 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Learning Outcomes Understand mental health difficulties across the lifespan from the perspective of typical and atypical pathways of development Have a basic knowledge of factors influencing the development of psychological difficulties – risk & protective factors, resilience, vulnerability Familiarity with Anxiety, Depression, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders, their emergence, maintenance and intervention
Page 4 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Learning Outcomes contd. Have an introductory knowledge of the conceptual underpinnings of a range of psychological modes of intervention Be introduced to a clinician’s work Have a basic understanding of the structures of the Public Health Service and how to access services for those with mental health difficulties
Page 5 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Course Outline 1.Overview –Developmental perspectives on mental health 2.Risk & Resilience 3.Autistic Spectrum Disorders & the Behavioural Model 4.Anxiety and the Cognitive Model 5.Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Family Therapy Model 6.Depression and the Object Relations Model 7.Clinician’s perspectives – working with children 8.Clinician’s perspectives – working with adolescents 9.Overview of Services
Page 6 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Models of how mental health difficulties emerge Behavioural Model Cognitive Models Psychoanalytic Models Family Systems Models Other Models –Humanistic Models (Rogerian, Gestalt)
Page 7 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Behaviourism Emphasis on observable behaviour Learning principles account for behaviour in humans and animals –Classical conditioning –Operant conditioning –Imitation Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1986)
Page 8 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Cognitive Therapy Models Beck’s Theory of Depression –Thoughts Feelings Behaviour Extension of Behaviour Theory – CBT Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT)
Page 9 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Object Relations Model Origins in Classical Psychoanalysis & Freud –The Unconscious & Defense mechanisms Melanie Klein Focus on early development, ‘positions’ as developmental phases, primitive early defense mechanisms Donald Winnicott ‘good enough parent’
Page 10 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Family Systems Model Structural Family Therapy –Salvador Minuchin (et al.1974, 1996) –Subsystems –Boundaries –Enmeshed relationships –Parentalised child
Page 11 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Humanistic Models Rogers & Maslow – ‘client-centered’ Process Oriented Psychology Gestalt (Perls, Hefferline & Goodman, 1951) Bodywork – Bioenergetics (Lowen, 1969)
Page 12 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Models & Mental Health Models vary in their relative contribution to our understanding of mental health – theory & research: development, maintenance, intervention Research Methods used to investigate effectiveness Mental Health Difficulties – spectrum from typical to atypical Autistic Spectrum Disorders, Anxiety, ADHD & Depression
Page 13 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Developmental Perspective Application of developmental principles to understanding of mental health – development, maintenance, intervention Developmental Psychopathology Life-span perspective Schools of Psychotherapy
Page 14 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Influences on development (Dumas & Nilsen, 2003) Hereditary variables Neurophysiological variables Family/peer variables Historical influences, early experiences Environmental variables Psychological variables Social/cultural variables Current influences and experiences
Page 15 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Elements of Developmental Psychopathology (Wenar & Kenig, 1995) Developmental pathways Equifinality – pathways same outcome Multifinality – risk developmental outcomes Multideterminism – no single cause Continuity/discontinuity continuum Risk & protective factors & mechanisms
Page 16 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Elements of Developmental Psychopathology(contd) Transactional approach: Both parent and child influence each other’s motivations, actions and interactions, leading to either negative or positive outcomes Developmental Psychopathology perceives psychopathology not as something the person ‘has’ but rather as the result of a series of successive adaptations to the environment (Sroufe, 1997)
Page 17 © Rosaleen McElvaney, PhD Models of Development and Menatl Health 2009 Sources 3 Core areas of study for the course Risk & Resilience – Developmental Psychology & Developmental Psychopathology literature Models – Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy literature Mental Health difficulties – Developmental Psychopathology & Clinical Psychology literature
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