Please briefly share your academic, professional, and clinical experiences. What are your expectations for this course?Syllabus: Did everyone receive a syllabus and relevant readings? Class dates and holidays Psychopathologies not covered in this course: Learning Disabilities Mental Retardation (educational specialists)
Provide information about risk factors for child and adolescent psychopathology Provide information about protective factors against the development of child and adolescent psychopathology Provide information about the major conditions and disorders that come to clinical attention This course does not explicitly cover information about intervention strategies.
Effects of emotional and behavioral problems in children Impairments in academic achievement Impairments in interpersonal competencies Impairments in independent living skills Persistence across the lifespan
Integrate studies of normal and pathological development Examine developmental continuities and discontinuities of traits, behavior patterns, emotional responses, and diagnoses. Evaluate evidence across multiple levels of analysis a. genetic b. biological c. psychological d. family e. neighborhood f. culture
Use interdisciplinary methods Clinical and developmental psychology Child and adolescent psychiatry Genetics Neurology Public health Philosophy of science Explore risk and protective factors and their interaction Use transactional models of influence Not linear patterns of association Probabilistic, dynamic, nonlinear, complex conceptual models Consider social and cultural context in understanding function and meaning of behavioral and emotional states
Equifinality – multiple pathways yield the same psychopathological outcome (mediational models) genetic constellation environmental deprivation prenatal teratogens brain injury different combinations of risk factors or sheer number of risk factors
Multifinality – same pathway to multiple psychopathological outcomes (mediational models) Consideration of unique subgroups (moderational models): Common genotypes Common personality variables Common socialization practices (e.g., secure base behavior) Common neighborhoods Consideration of neuroscientific principles and the role of the brain
Study of aberrations in normal developmental pathways Study of normal developmental pathways Study of normal processes can elucidate atypical processes, while study of atypical processes can elucidate normal processes Progress in one domain depends on progress in another Mental disorders are not discrete and categorical, but rather, dimensional and continuous (flaw with DSM-IV) Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders Autism-spectrum disorders
Developmental pathways are lawful and coherent Developmental pathways are sometimes discontinuous (e.g. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) Conduct Disorder (CD) Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)) Different continuities exist across different subgroups (e.g., outcomes of authoritarian parenting in Caucasian, middle- class children versus African American children children)
Examining both “micro” and “macro” levels of analysis Connecting these various levels from gene expression to cultural expression and their mutual influence Bottom-up and top-down conceptions must co-exist
Risk factors – “antecedent variables that predict such dysfunction” ( p. 13 ) Identify risk factors causal of disorder Identify risk factors that are malleable Protective factors (resilience; buffering) – “unexpectedly good outcomes, or competence, despite the presence of adversity or risk” ( p. 14; see Crockenberg (1981) study ) Same risk factors might produce different outcomes, depending on the presence of protective factors (multifinality) Criticism of uniqueness of protective factors because they exist on the opposite end of the continuum with risk factors (e.g., IQ, temperament, parenting)
Children influence parents, teachers and peers Parents, teachers, and peers influence children Early maturing brain regions influence and are influenced by environmental factors Operation of gene-environment interactions
Family, school, neighborhood, and culture are all central to the unfolding of both aberrant and adaptive behavior Different cultural contexts can provide different meaning to particular behaviors (e.g., suicide)
Multiple risk factors related to lowered chances of recovery Malleability, plasticity, and flexibility in development Bi-directional influences between genes and epigenetic factors (e.g., brain structures, behavioral patterns, environmental influences)
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