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Skin Appendages Cutaneous (relating to skin) glands Cutaneous (relating to skin) glands Sebaceous glands Sebaceous glands Sweat glands Sweat glands Hair.

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Presentation on theme: "Skin Appendages Cutaneous (relating to skin) glands Cutaneous (relating to skin) glands Sebaceous glands Sebaceous glands Sweat glands Sweat glands Hair."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skin Appendages Cutaneous (relating to skin) glands Cutaneous (relating to skin) glands Sebaceous glands Sebaceous glands Sweat glands Sweat glands Hair Hair Hair follicles Hair follicles Nails Nails These appendages come from the epidermis and help maintain the bodys homeostasis.

2 Appendages of the Skin Sebaceous glands Sebaceous glands Produce oil Produce oil Lubricant for skin which keeps skin soft and moist Lubricant for skin which keeps skin soft and moist Prevents brittle hair Prevents brittle hair Kills bacteria (slightly acidic) Kills bacteria (slightly acidic) Most have ducts that empty into hair follicles; others open directly onto skin surface Most have ducts that empty into hair follicles; others open directly onto skin surface Glands are activated at puberty and this is what causes teenage acne Glands are activated at puberty and this is what causes teenage acne

3 Appendages of the Skin

4 Facial Blemishes Whitehead – sebaceous gland is blocked usually from the oily substance made by the gland. Whitehead – sebaceous gland is blocked usually from the oily substance made by the gland. Blackhead – when whitehead dries, it darkens forming blackhead Blackhead – when whitehead dries, it darkens forming blackhead Acne – an active infection of the sebaceous glands caused by bacteria Acne – an active infection of the sebaceous glands caused by bacteria

5 Appendages of the Skin Sweat glands Sweat glands Produce sweat Widely distributed in skin (2.5 million per person) Produce sweat Widely distributed in skin (2.5 million per person) helps cool the body helps cool the body Two types Two types Eccrine Eccrine Open via duct to pore on skin surface Open via duct to pore on skin surface Most numerous on the body Most numerous on the body Apocrine Apocrine Ducts empty into hair follicles Ducts empty into hair follicles Found mostly in armpits and genital areas Found mostly in armpits and genital areas Precise function is unknown but are they are activated during pain, stress and during sexual foreplay. Precise function is unknown but are they are activated during pain, stress and during sexual foreplay.

6 Appendages of the Skin

7 Sweat and Its Function Composition Composition Mostly water Mostly water Salts and vitamin C Salts and vitamin C Some metabolic waste (urea and uric acid) Some metabolic waste (urea and uric acid) Fatty acids and proteins (apocrine only) Fatty acids and proteins (apocrine only) Function Function Helps rid body of excess heat Helps rid body of excess heat Excretes waste products Excretes waste products Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth Odor is from associated bacteria Odor is from associated bacteria

8 Appendages of the Skin Hair Hair Produced by hair follicle which are made of hard keratinized epithelial cells Produced by hair follicle which are made of hard keratinized epithelial cells Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color

9 Structure of Hair Follicle

10 Hair Anatomy Hair anatomy Hair anatomy Central medulla Central medulla Cortex surrounds medulla Cortex surrounds medulla Cuticle on outside of cortex Cuticle on outside of cortex Most heavily keratinized Most heavily keratinized

11 Hair Structures Associated hair structures Associated hair structures Hair follicle Hair follicle Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root Arrector pili muscle Arrector pili muscle Smooth muscle Smooth muscle Pulls hairs upright when cold or frightened Pulls hairs upright when cold or frightened Sebaceous gland Sebaceous gland

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13 Nails Nails Nails Scale-like modifications of the epidermis Scale-like modifications of the epidermis Heavily keratinized Heavily keratinized Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed Responsible for growth Responsible for growth Lack of pigment makes them colorless Lack of pigment makes them colorless

14 Nail Anatomy Nail structures Nail structures Free edge Free edge Body is the visible attached portion Body is the visible attached portion Root of nail embedded in skin Root of nail embedded in skin Cuticle is the proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail body Cuticle is the proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail body

15 Severity of Burns First-degree burns First-degree burns Only epidermis is damaged Only epidermis is damaged Skin is red and swollen Skin is red and swollen Second-degree burns Second-degree burns Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged Skin is red with blisters Skin is red with blisters Third-degree burns (worst) Third-degree burns (worst) Destroys entire skin layer Destroys entire skin layer Burn is gray-white or black Burn is gray-white or black

16 Severity of Burns

17 Rule of Nines Way to determine the extent of burns Way to determine the extent of burns Body is divided into 11 areas for quick estimation Body is divided into 11 areas for quick estimation Each area represents about 9% of total body surface area Each area represents about 9% of total body surface area

18 Rule of Nines

19 Skin Cancer Types Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Metastasizes to lymph nodes if not removed Metastasizes to lymph nodes if not removed Early removal allows a good chance of cure Early removal allows a good chance of cure Believed to be sun-induced Believed to be sun-induced Arises from stratum spinosum Arises from stratum spinosum


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