Presentation on theme: "Clinical Urine and Fluid Analysis Physical Examination of Urine"— Presentation transcript:
1Clinical Urine and Fluid Analysis Physical Examination of Urine
2in physical examination of urine we'll deal with : -color -odor -specific gravity
3Figure. Urine specimens of varying color. Physical Examination of UrineColor :Normal urine has a wide range of color, which is mainly determined by its concentration .color may vary from a pale yellow to adark amber, There are, however,many factors and constituentsthat can alter the normal urine color.These include medications and dietas well as various chemicalthat can be present in disease.Figure. Urine specimens of varying color.
6Although not routinely reported, foam may be a significant Physical Examination of UrineFOAMAlthough not routinely reported, foam may be a significantfinding. A white stable foam that is formed upon agitating thespecimen can be seen in urine containing a moderate or largeamount of protein. Foam that is present in agitated urinespecimens may appear yellow to yellow–green if sufficientamount of bilirubin is present. Other substances that alterurine color usually do not alter the color offoam that may be formed upon agitatingthe specimen. The observance of foamand its color should guide the technologist’sinterpretation of chemical tests andselection of confirmatory procedures.Figure. Foam in urine
7Normal urine is usually clear but it may become cloudy due Physical Examination of UrineCLARITYNormal urine is usually clear but it may become cloudy dueto the precipitation of amorphous phosphates in alkalineurine, or amorphous urates in an acid urine. Amorphousphosphates are a white precipitate which will dissolve whenacid is added. Amorphous urates frequently have a pinkcolor from urinary pigments, and they will dissolve if thespecimen is heated.Urine can be cloudy from the presence of leukocytes orepithelial cells. The presence of these cells can be confirmedby microscopic examination of the sediment. Bacteria canalso cause cloudiness, especially if the specimen has been
9Normal odor of urine is ….. Physical Examination of UrineODORAlthough not routinely reported urine odor may be a significantobservation. Ketones smell sweet or fruity. A specimencontaminated with bacteria may have a pungentsmell from the ammonia that is produced. The excretion of“sweaty feet” odor is found in isovaleric acidemia or inindividuals who have excessive amounts of butyric or hexanoicAcid .Hypermethioninemia has been associated with a “rancidbutter” or “fishy” odor. Prolonged presence of any strongunusual odor may be associated with inherited disorders.Normal odor of urine is …..
10causes of changes Color Oxidation of substances Physical Examination of Urinecauses of changesColor Oxidation of substancesClarity Increased turbidity due to proliferationof bacteria or precipitation of chemicalsubstancesOdor Increasing strength due to proliferationof bacteria
11Specific gravity and refractometer Physical Examination of UrineSpecific gravity and refractometerThe specific gravity of urine is a messier of dissolved substances in a specimen .. Normal range is – 1.035Specific gravity of urine can be tested by refractometry.