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1 Portland Community College
Lab Activity 32 Urinalysis Portland Community College BI 233

2 Filtration Occurs in the renal corpuscles: blood pressure forces water and small dissolved molecules to move from the glomerular capillaries to the capsular space and is called the filtrate

3 Filtrate Contains mostly water along with excess ions (mostly sodium and potassium), glucose, amino acids and nitrogenous waste products. Lacks RBCs and large plasma proteins.

4 Reabsorption Almost all the water (99%)
As well as glucose, amino acids and various ions. These are returned to the blood by passing from the renal tubules to the peritubular capillaries or vasa recta

5 Secretion Unwanted substances such as metabolic wastes, drugs and excess ions (hydrogen and potassium) are removed from the blood and enter the renal tubules. Most occurs in DCT and collecting ducts

6 Urine Normally contains about 95% water
Various ions (sodium, potassium, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate) Amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates Urea, uric acid and creatinine

7 Universal precautions
You will be examining the physical and chemical characteristics of your own urine sample Work with your urine only Wear gloves, safety eyewear, and a mask Clean spills with 10% bleach solution Anything that comes into contact with urine goes into an autoclave bag.

8 Physical Characteristics of Urine
Color and transparency Clear, pale to deep yellow (due to urochrome) Concentrated urine has a deeper yellow/amber color A red or red-brown (abnormal) color could be from a food dye, eating fresh beets, a drug, or the presence of either hemoglobin or myoglobin. If the sample contained many red blood cells, it would be cloudy as well as red. Turbidity or cloudiness may be caused by excessive cellular material or protein in the urine

9 Physical Characteristics of Urine
Odor Fresh urine is slightly aromatic Standing urine develops an ammonia odor Some drugs and vegetables (asparagus) alter the usual odor Elevated ketones smells fruity or acetone-like

10 Physical Characteristics of Urine
Specific gravity measures density of urine compared to water Ranges from to 1.035 1.001 is dilute 1.035 is concentrated Is dependent on solute concentration > is either contaminated or contains very high levels of glucose Patients who have received radiopaque dyes or dextran can also have high specific gravity

11 Chemical Composition of Urine
Urine is 95% water and 5% solutes Nitrogenous wastes include urea, uric acid, and creatinine Other normal solutes include: Sodium, potassium, phosphate, and sulfate ions Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions Abnormally high concentrations of any urinary constituents may indicate pathology

12 Urinalysis “Dipstick" method: chemical reactions cause color changes on ten different pads on the test strip. Leukocytes Nitrite Urobilinogen Protein pH Blood Blood Ketones Bilirubin Glucose

13 Dipstick Urinalysis Interpretation
pH: large range 4.5 to 8.0 (average is 6.0) The urine pH should be recorded, although it is seldom of diagnostic value. Diet can alter pH Acidic: high protein diet, ketoacidosis Alkaline: vegetarian diet, UTI

14 Dipstick Urinalysis Interpretation
Nitrite: Might indicate bacterial infection with gram-negative rods (like E. coli) If bacteria are present, they convert nitrates to nitrites Normal=negative

15 Dipstick Urinalysis Interpretation
Bilirubin: indicates the presence of liver disease or biliary obstruction A small amount of bilirubin in urine is normal excessive amounts is called Bilirubinuria: appearance of bilirubin in urine Yellow foam when sample is shake

16 Dipstick Urinalysis Interpretation
Urobilinogen: Produced in the intestine from bilirubin. Gives feces brown color Normal=small amount Absence: renal disease or biliary obstruction Increased in any condition that causes an increase in production or retention of bilirubin Hepatitis, cirrhosis or biliary disease

17 Dipstick Urinalysis Interpretation
Leukocytes: Indicates infection or inflammation Normal=negative Pyuria: Leukocytes in urine Cystitis: Bladder infection Pyelonephritis: Kidney infection

18 Dipstick Urinalysis Interpretation
Blood: Almost always indicates pathology because RBC are too large to pass through glomerulus Normal=negative Hematuria: Blood in urine Possible causes: Kidney stone, infection, tumor Caution: Very common finding in women because of menstruation.

19 Dipstick Urinalysis Interpretation
Protein: Usually proteins are too large to pass through glomerulus (Proteinuria usually represents an abnormality in the glomerular filtration barrier.) Normal=negative Trace amounts normal in pregnancy or after eating a lot of protein Albuminuria: Albumin in urine

20 Dipstick Urinalysis Interpretation
Glucose: In general the presence of glucose indicates that the filtered load of glucose exceeds the maximal tubular reabsorptive capacity for glucose. Normal=negative (can occur temporarily after eating a high carb meal or during stress) Glycosuria: Glucose in urine

21 Dipstick Urinalysis Interpretation
Ketones: Intermediate products of fat metabolism Urine testing only detects acetoacetic acid, not the other ketones, acetone or beta-hydroxybuteric acid. Normal=negative or trace amounts Ketonuria: ketones in urine (Ketonuria + glucose in urine may indicate diabetes mellitus)

22 Urine sediments If a urine sample is centrifuged, the sediment can be viewed microscopically to examine the solid components. Some solids are normally found in urine

23 Chemical Analysis Sulfates: Normal constituent of urine
The urinary sulfate is mainly derived from sulfur-containing amino acids and is therefore determined by protein intake. Phosphates: Normal constituent of urine Important for buffering H+ in the collecting duct Chlorides: Normal constituent of urine. Major extracellular anion. Its main purpose is to maintain electrical neutrality, mostly as a counter-ion to sodium. It often accompanies sodium losses and excesses.

24 sediments Cells- small numbers of epithelial cells that are shed from various regions of the urinary tract. Large numbers of WBSs and any amount of RBCs are abnormal usually indicate disease

25 Microscopic Examination Pyuria: WBC in Urine
Normal: Men: <2 WBCs per hi power field Women: <5 WBC generally indicate the presence of an inflammatory process somewhere along the course of the urinary tract

26 Microscopic Examination Hematuria: RBC in Urine
RBC's may appear normally shaped, swollen by dilute urine or crenated by concentrated urine. The presence of dysmorphic (odd shaped) RBC's in urine suggests a glomerular disease such as a glomerulonephritis. Crenated RBC Dysmorphic RBC

27 Microscopic Examination Epithelial Cells
Transitional epithelial cells originate from the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and/or urethra. Large sheets of transitional epithelial cells can be seen in bladder cancer. Squamous epithelial cell Transitional epithelial cell

28 Microscopic Examination Casts
Casts: hardened cell fragments formed in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts Form when cells clump together Usually form when urine is acidic or contains high level of proteins or salts Usually pathological. Can only be seen with microscopic examination

29 Microscopic Examination Epithelial Cells
Too many squamous cells: suggest contamination, poor specimen collection

30 White Cell Casts Usually indicates pyelonephritis (kidney infection)
Other causes: Interstitial Nephritis (inflammation of the tubules and the spaces between the tubules and the glomeruli. )

31 Red Cell Casts Red blood cells may stick together and form red blood cell casts. Indicative of glomerulonephritis, with leakage of RBC's from glomeruli, or severe tubular damage.

32 Hyaline Casts Hyaline casts are composed primarily of a mucoprotein (Tamm-Horsfall protein) secreted by tubule cells. Causes: Low flow rate, high salt concentration, and low pH, all of which favor protein denaturation and precipitation of the Tamm-Horsfall protein. Hyaline Casts appear Transparent

33 Calcium Oxalate Crystals
They can occur in urine of any pH. Causes: Dietary asparagus and ethylene glycol (antifreeze) intoxication

34 Uric Acid Crystals High uric acid in blood (by-product of purine digestion/high protein diet) Associated with gout (arthritis)

35 Struvite Crystals Formation is favored in alkaline urine.
Urinary tract infection with urease producing bacteria (eg. Proteus vulgaris) can promote struvite crystals by raising urine pH and increasing free ammonia.

36 Chemical Analysis Urea: The end product of protein breakdown
Uric acid: A metabolite of purine breakdown Creatinine: Associated with muscle metabolism of creatine phosphate.

37 Microscopic Examination Bacteria
Bacteria are common in urine specimens (from contamination) Therefore, microbial organisms found in all but the most scrupulously collected urines should be interpreted in view of clinical symptoms. A = crenated RBC, B = RBC, C = bacteria

38 The End The End

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