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Presentation on theme: "CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE"— Presentation transcript:


2 Urinalysis Physical characteristics: color, odor,
turbidity, volume, & specific gravity Chemical characteristics: pH, glucose, protein, ketones, pus (WBC’s & bacteria), RBC’s, hemoglobin, bile Microscopic exam of urine sediment: crystals, cells, etc.

3 Why is urinalysis an important part of routine patient exams?
Urine contains important metabolic information & the presence of abnormal substances is helpful in disease diagnosis Urine is cheap, simple, & readily available

4 Odor Fresh urine has a slight characteristic odor but drugs such as nicotine, veggies such as asparagus, & diseases such as PKU or diabetes can alter odor Standing (“old”) urine takes on an ammonia odor due to bacterial action on urine solutes

5 List the three main organic solutes of urine
Urea, creatinine, & uric acid

6 List the three main inorganic solutes of urine
Sodium, potassium, & chloride

7 State the average daily urine output
mL ( L)

8 State the normal daily range of urine output
mL ( L)

9 Define the following terms:
Anuria - complete stoppage of urine Oliguria - reduced amount of urine Polyuria - increased amount of urine Nocturia - increased amount of night

10 Describe the different types of urine specimens used in a medical lab
Random 1st morning Mid-stream clean catch (MSCC) Fasting 24 hour

11 List the normal colors of urine
Any shade of yellow due to the pigment urochrome: light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, amber . . .

12 List abnormal colors of urine & possible causes
Colorless - XS fluid intake; diabetes Orange - bilirubin, XS Vitamin A Green - bile, Pseudomonas bacteria Red/Brown - hemoglobin, beets Black - melanins Any abnormal color can be due to dyes, foods, or medications

13 State the term used to describe urine appearance
Turbidity - “cloudiness” due to particulate matter suspended in urine Clear, transparent, hazy, cloudy, turbid, milky, or system

14 Identify several factors that may affect urine appearance
Crystals, WBC’s, RBC’s, bacteria, epithelial cells, lipids, mucus, fecal material, semen, lymph fluid, yeast, powders, creams, cotton fibers, etc.


16 Define specific gravity
Density of a substance compared to an equal volume of water at a similar temperature

17 Describe a urinometer & the procedure for using it to determine s. g
Describe a urinometer & the procedure for using it to determine s.g. of urine A device that displaces water and sinks to a level indicative of the specific gravity Pour urine in jar, place urinometer in fluid, spin & when it settles, read the results

18 State the normal range of specific gravity for human urine

19 Explain the significance of a specific gravity of 1.023 - 1.035
Normal; or above indicates good kidney function

20 List 4 common reasons for abnormally high specific gravity results
Presence of glucose Presence of protein Recent X-ray exposure Use of IV’s Dehydrating illnesses - fever, sweat, vomit, diarrhea

21 List possible reasons for abnormally low specific gravity results
Diabetes insipidus (water diabetes) Renal (kidney) disease/damage

22 Chemical Tests for Urine - pH
Average Range: Average: 6.0 Affected by diet & changes in body metabolism Acidic urine: -high protein diet or lots of whole wheat = acid forming foods -diabetes Alkaline urine: -high veggie or dairy diet = base forming foods -UTI Either: medications, kidney stones (renal calculi)

23 Chemical Tests for Urine - Glucose (glycosuria)
Benign: -heavy meal -emotional stress Pathologic: -diabetes mellitus -kidney tubule defects -CNS damage -thyroid disorders

24 Chemical Tests for Urine - Protein (proteinuria)
Benign: -cold -strenuous exercise -acute illness (fever) -orthostatic proteinuria Pathologic: -*kidney damage* -pre-eclampsia -hypertension -multiple myeloma

25 Chemical Tests for Urine - Pus (Pyuria)
UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) or contaminated specimen High Risk for UTI: -School age children esp. girls -pregnant women -diabetic people -previous history of UTI’s -patients with catheters -elderly people

26 Chemical Tests for Urine - RBC’s (Hematuria)
Whole blood = cloudy red Bleeding in the urinary tract -trauma (ex: auto accident, kick) -kidney stones (renal calculi) -kidney infection (pyelonephritis) -tumors -toxic chemicals/drugs

27 Chemical Tests for Urine - Hemoglobin (hemoglobinuria)
Hemoglobin = clear, red appearance -hemolytic anemia -transfusion reactions -severe burns

28 Chemical Tests for Urine - Bile (bilirubinuria)
-hepatitis/liver disease

29 Chemical Tests for Urine - Ketones (ketonuria)
Source: breakdown of fats instead of carbohydrates for energy -diabetes -starvation (decreased carbohydrate intake or increase carbohydrate loss - vomiting) -wrong dose of insulin

30 End.


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