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Ready, Set, GO! INTRODUCTION In our research, we are focusing on the study of rat’s senses, such as smell and taste. The research team, wants to understand.

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Presentation on theme: "Ready, Set, GO! INTRODUCTION In our research, we are focusing on the study of rat’s senses, such as smell and taste. The research team, wants to understand."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ready, Set, GO!

3 INTRODUCTION In our research, we are focusing on the study of rat’s senses, such as smell and taste. The research team, wants to understand how the cheese odors affect rat preference on cheese flavor? Does the rat like it or is it just easier to get to the cheese? Why do rats pick the cheese? Also, in this testing of rats, we are investigating the decision that rats decide. Therefore, our team developed a rat maze to test our curiosity. By understanding this concept of the rat sense of smell and taste along with rat decision making. We, as a human, can gather a great deal of information for our future study of rat. Actually, when it comes to animal testing and experiment, scientists are using rats because they are similar to humans in many ways. As a result of their similarities to humans, scientists use rats to perform testing to comprehend more about human genetics, diseases, effect of drugs and other critical issues that can be beneficial to human health and well being. In our research, we are focusing on the study of rat’s senses, such as smell and taste. The research team, wants to understand how the cheese odors affect rat preference on cheese flavor? Does the rat like it or is it just easier to get to the cheese? Why do rats pick the cheese? Also, in this testing of rats, we are investigating the decision that rats decide. Therefore, our team developed a rat maze to test our curiosity. By understanding this concept of the rat sense of smell and taste along with rat decision making. We, as a human, can gather a great deal of information for our future study of rat. Actually, when it comes to animal testing and experiment, scientists are using rats because they are similar to humans in many ways. As a result of their similarities to humans, scientists use rats to perform testing to comprehend more about human genetics, diseases, effect of drugs and other critical issues that can be beneficial to human health and well being.

4 Literature Review Rats perceive their surrounding different from how humans visualize the world. Rats are just like humans they have five senses: vision, hearing, smelling, taste and touching. When speaking of vision, rats have poor eyesight. They can only see green and blue, not red. Therefore they have dichromatic vision. The surrounding is very blurry to them. This in term means rats allow seeing into ultraviolet colors that humans are not able to see. Rats have a keen sense of smell in their environments. Even though the process is very similar to what happens in humans, the structure of their noses permits them to smell with a more accurate efficiency. Air enters through the rat’s nostrils flowing past a sect of skin sensory of smell called olfactory epithelium. The olfactory neurons are shaped like hair-like cilia that pass into a thin layer of mucus. The odor that is in the air is called odorant, attracts to the receptors. It then triggers a neuron response that transfers up to the brain.

5 There is a second way which rats can use to detect odor, vomeronasal organ, or VNO. We have this structure in the nasal cavity. Rat VNO, on the other hand, is found in a cigar-shape passage under the nasal cavity in the septum, with a narrow opening inside the nostril. When rats lick and sniff, molecules from the surroundings attract to the moist nose and dissolve, which then travels to the VNO in the mucus. In rats, the job of VNO is to detect pheromones, or chemical signals, like those found in urine. These are transmitted between members of the same species. In our experiment we are using Mozzarella, Swiss, and Pepper Jack.

6 Which type of cheese would rats rather prefer: Mozzarella, Pepper Jack, or Swiss?

7 Hypothesis If we were to place a rat in a maze with three different types of cheeses; Swiss, mozzarella and Pepper Jack at three different locations then the rat would head for Pepper Jack because of its strong pepper smell that attracts to the rat’s sense.

8 Materials 54 inches by 72 inches of plywood Rats cheeses Cages Water Stop watch Camera Cardboard Glue Gun Scissors Glue Tubes Rulers

9 Procedure Building mazes

10 1. Built a rat maze that is 54 inches by 72 inches long (sketching it out on plywood board). 2. These are the number of measurement pieces need to cut out of cardboard. –2 pieces of 54 x 6 cardboard –2 = 26 x 6 inches –5 = 15 x 6 inches –4 = 9 x 6 inches –6 = 10 x 6 inches –5 = 7.5 x 6 inches –3 = 6.5 x 5 inches –12 = 5 x 6 inches –3 = 4 x 6 inches 3. Hot glue certain pieces of the cut out cardboard onto the rat maze where it is supposes to be.

11 Experiment Setup Protocol 1) Consider the Research Involving Human Subject policy but not fill out as our group is not harming the animals that are being tested but is rewarding them. 2) Divide up the role of who going to handle the rat, be a timer, recorder and setup experimenter. 3) Don’t feed the rats when the experiment is about to start. 4) The setup experimenter melt the cheeses in the microwave for 30 seconds to dissolve the cheeses odor then let it cool down 30 seconds. 5) Next, the rat handler takes the rat out of the cage and hold it in front of the maze start line from an angle (not straight at one direction).

12 6) Start timing when the rat is let go. 7) Stop timing once the rat reaches one of the cheese destinations. 8) The recorder records the time and choice collected. 9) Rat handler picks the rat out of the maze. Repeat steps 4 to step 7 for 3 more times. 10) Now, select a new rat for the experiment. Repeat steps 5 through 7 for a total of four rats (the number that was available to us). 11) After finish gathering data for a total of 36 trials for all four rats, start cleaning up all the messes. 12) Analyze the data.

13 DATA/ANALYSIS There are a lot of differences and comparison in the graphs as a result of the experiment. In Graph 1, “ Average of rats total trials speed,” show in trial 1 that it took a long time for the rats to travel through the maze looking for the cheeses. In comparison, they had improve in the third trial because they had learn the maze therefore the time decrease. As you can see, there were a lot of variation in the second trials for all four rats. Princess was the smallest rat of them four while Bob was the biggest. But Bob had a faster speed than Princess. So, the size of the rats doesn’t matter really matter in the experiment. In contrast, rats behavior does count because Princess were shy and scared of the surrounding therefore it took her awhile to reach the end of the maze. Graph 1

14 Graph # 2 depicted the average time it took each individual rat to get to each type of cheese. The time was 10 seconds apart from each other but that does not make any difference. But the rats tend to went to the mozzarella slowest and Swiss the fastest even though they didn’t had the same number of time and regardless of which rats. Pepper Jack fall between both of the cheeses. The pie chart represent the top cheese the rats went to. Mozzarella 45.20% had the highest rank then came Pepper Jack 29% and last was Swiss which was 25.80%. Graph 2 Graph 3

15 RESULT/CONCLUSION In conclusion, our hypothesis was proven incorrect. The rats greatly disapproved of the pepper jack, and according to our results they chose mozzarella more predominantly. We assumed that the rats picked mozzarella because it was the easier position to get to or it could be the rats preference. Also, base on the result of the graph, rats went to the Swiss the fastest even though mozzarella was the most chosen. As a result of that, we could not decided whether the rats preferred mozzarella or Swiss. We could have done better in building the rat mazes higher and cover the top with a plastic board because the rats continuously climbed out of the maze. We should have marked the cheeses position to keep track of their time and later that would help us decide whether they picked the cheese as their preference or because it’s the easier position to get to. The rat’s attention was easily distracted in the surrounding. We did not have time to get to know the rats. They were shy and frightened. We were able to come up with numerous ways to display our data. The cheeses fit our criteria as best as possible. We know how rats and humans relate to each other. In the future, we want to continue doing the experiment but with mozzarella and Swiss cheese only. The maze structure would be complicate and have a cover.

16 REFERENCE beverage/food/swiss-cheese.aspx /Cheese/Cheese_Types/cheese_types.html mplatedata/bhg/recipeGlossary/data/ xm l

17 Thank You! Mrs. Morgan Mrs. Scott Ms. Johnson Mrs. Gossage Mrs. Hart Ms. Daphne Mr. Desai

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