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Neal Turner Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Protostellar Disks: Birth, Life and Death National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

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Presentation on theme: "Neal Turner Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Protostellar Disks: Birth, Life and Death National Aeronautics and Space Administration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neal Turner Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Protostellar Disks: Birth, Life and Death National Aeronautics and Space Administration

2 The Life of Protostellar Disks 1.Jets and Winds 2.Basic disk properties 3.Angular momentum transport 4.Evolution of the solids National Aeronautics and Space Administration

3

4 Hartigan et al / Antoniucci et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

5 McKee & Ostriker 2007 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

6 Pyo et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

7 Zinnecker et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

8 Takami et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

9 Burrows et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

10 C. Lada 1985 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

11 Girart et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

12 Tamura et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

13 T. Ray et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

14 Johns-Krull 2007 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

15 Ferreira et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

16 Spruit 1996 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

17 Anderson et al Size of the Launching Region? Jet power= Rate of work done against the magnetic torque = (Footpoint orbital frequency) x (Angular momentum flux): Infer launching region lies 0.3 to 4 AU from the star. Assumes energy and momentum conserved along streamlines. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

18 Y. Kato 2004 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

19 Nakamura & Li 2007 Outflow-Driven Turbulence 1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

20 Outflow-Driven Turbulence 2 Cloud kinetic energy v T 2 dissipates on a crossing time R/v T, so the outflows can provide the stirring if With R=10 pc, v T =10 km s -1, f=0.01, v J =300 km s -1 and jet mass flow rate Solar masses per year, the outflows are sufficient to power the turbulence. i.e., if the outflow kinetic luminosity is greater than the dissipation rate in the gas associated with the star. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

21 Basic Disk Properties National Aeronautics and Space Administration

22 Hartmann & Kenyon 1996 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

23 M. Simon et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

24 Andrews & Williams 2007 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

25 Andrews & Williams 2007 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

26 Origins of the Surface Density Profile In steady-state Shakura-Sunyaev  -disk, if irradiation controls the temperature profile. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

27 Weidenschilling 1977 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

28 Dullemond et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

29 Dullemond et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

30 Dullemond et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

31 Bergin et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

32 K. R. Bell et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

33 Hartmann et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

34 Angular Momentum Transport National Aeronautics and Space Administration

35 1. Gravitational Instability National Aeronautics and Space Administration

36 1. Gravitational Instability National Aeronautics and Space Administration

37 Small disturbances grow if National Aeronautics and Space Administration

38 Gammie 2001 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

39 Gammie 2001 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

40 Mejia et al With slower cooling, instability leads to sustained accretion. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

41 Balbus & Hawley Magneto-Rotational Turbulence National Aeronautics and Space Administration

42 Balbus & Hawley Magneto-Rotational Turbulence National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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44 Gammie 1996 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

45 Three Ways to Lose Magnetic Flux National Aeronautics and Space Administration

46 Ionization Processes Stellar X-Rays Interstellar Cosmic Rays Long-Lived Radionuclides At 1 AU in the minimum mass Solar nebula Midplane ionisation is weak! Short-Lived Radionuclides National Aeronautics and Space Administration

47 Wardle 2007 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

48 Sano & Stone 2002b MRI turbulence requires National Aeronautics and Space Administration

49 1  m Grains National Aeronautics and Space Administration

50 No Grains National Aeronautics and Space Administration

51 H. Li et al P National Aeronautics and Space Administration

52 Lodato & Clarke 2004 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

53 Evolution of the Solids National Aeronautics and Space Administration

54 van Boekel et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

55 van Boekel et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

56 TEM image of a thin- sectioned Wild 2 grain consisting of enstatite with exsolution lamellae of diopside, formed from a melt (H. Leroux) National Aeronautics and Space Administration

57 Natta et al Resolved Unresolved National Aeronautics and Space Administration

58 Furlan et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

59 Dahm & Hillenbrand 2007 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

60 Dullemond & Dominik 2004 Settling is rapid in a laminar disk National Aeronautics and Space Administration

61 A Rough Estimate of Grain Growth Timescales Particles settle at the terminal speed, with the force of gravity balancing the force of the gas molecules striking from below: Particles remain compact spheres. Particles grow by sweeping up smaller, stationary grains: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

62 Settling Only National Aeronautics and Space Administration

63 Settling & Sweeping National Aeronautics and Space Administration

64 Particle growth: extreme cases BPCA Ballistic Particle-Cluster Agglomeration ⇓ ballistic hit-and-stick impacts of single dust particles into growing dust agglomerate BCCA Ballistic Cluster-Cluster Agglomeration ⇓ ballistic hit-and-stick collisions between equal-mass dust agglomerates i = 1,024 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

65 BPCA N=2 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

66 BPCA N=4 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

67 BPCA N=8 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

68 BPCA N=16 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

69 BPCA N=32 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

70 BPCA N=64 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

71 BPCA N=128 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

72 BPCA N=256 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

73 BPCA N=512 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

74 BPCA N=1024 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

75 BCCA N=2 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

76 BCCA N=4 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

77 BCCA N=8 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

78 BCCA N=16 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

79 BCCA N=32 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

80 BCCA N=64 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

81 BCCA N=128 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

82 BCCA N=256 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

83 BCCA N=512 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

84 BCCA N=1024 From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

85 Radial Drift Hot, Dense Cold, Less Dense National Aeronautics and Space Administration

86 Radial Drift Hot, Dense Cold, Less Dense National Aeronautics and Space Administration

87 Radial Drift Hot, Dense Cold, Less Dense Grain v=v K National Aeronautics and Space Administration

88 Weidenschilling & Cuzzi AU in MMSN National Aeronautics and Space Administration

89 Non-fractal Aggregate Growth (Hit-and-Stick) Cratering/ Fragmentation Non-fractal Aggregate Sticking + Compaction Cratering/Fragmen- tation/Accretion Non-fractal Aggregate Sticking + Compaction Fractal Aggregate Growth (Hit-and-Stick) Restructuring/ Compaction Fragmentation  »0   «0 EXPERIMENTSEXPERIMENTS Bouncing Non-fractal Aggregate Growth (Hit-and-Stick) Cratering/Fragmen- tation/Accretion Cratering/ Fragmentation Erosion ACOMPILATIONACOMPILATION From J. Blum National Aeronautics and Space Administration

90 Diameter 1 µm 100 m 100 µm 1 cm 1 m 1 µm100 m100 µm1 cm1 m Non-fractal Aggregate Growth (Hit-and-Stick) Erosion Non-fractal Aggregate Sticking + Compaction Cratering/Fragmen- tation/Accretion Cratering/ Fragmentation Fractal Aggregate Growth (Hit-and-Stick) Restructuring/ Compaction Bouncing Fragmentation  »0   «0 Erosion Non-fractal Aggregate Growth (Hit-and-Stick) Non-fractal Aggregate Sticking + Compaction Cratering/Fragmen- tation/Accretion Cratering/ Fragmentation Mass loss Mass conservation Mass gain * * * * * for compact targets only Blum & Wurm 2008 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

91 Barranco 2008 Stirring by Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability National Aeronautics and Space Administration

92 Stirring by Magneto-Rotational Turbulence Turner et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

93 Stirring by 2-Stream Instability Johansen et al National Aeronautics and Space Administration

94 The Life of Protostellar Disks 1.Jets and Winds 2.Basic disk properties 3.Angular momentum transport 4.Evolution of the solids National Aeronautics and Space Administration


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