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Chapter 1 Additional slides from Thorton & Rex, Modern Physics, 3 rd ed slides, prepared by Anthony Pitucco, Ph.D., Pima Community College Figures from.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Additional slides from Thorton & Rex, Modern Physics, 3 rd ed slides, prepared by Anthony Pitucco, Ph.D., Pima Community College Figures from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Additional slides from Thorton & Rex, Modern Physics, 3 rd ed slides, prepared by Anthony Pitucco, Ph.D., Pima Community College Figures from Halliday, Resnick, Walker, “Fundamentals of Physics” 9 th edition as noted.

2 Book website Other websites

3 EVOLUTION Modern Physics (emergence of relativity & quantum theory) ~1930 ~1890 Philosophy Natural Philosophy & Science (study of) Natural Science (knowledge based)~1600 (first ‘scientists’ appear) ~1634 ~ 1834Physics & Chemistry become separate fields Classical Physics~1687 ~400 BC

4 CONSERVATION LAWS

5 Classical Physics Mechanics – Galilieo – Newton – Kepler – Hook – Kepler – … Electromagnetism – Coulomb – Oersted – Young – Ampere – Faraday – Henry – Maxwell – Hertz – … Thermodynamics – Thompson – Carnot – Joule – Clausius – Kelvin – … CONSERVATION LAWS Energy, Linear Momentum, Angular Momentum, Charge

6 Conservation Laws Conservation of energy: – The total sum of energy (in all its forms) is conserved in all interactions. Conservation of linear momentum: – In the absence of external forces, linear momentum is conserved in all interactions. Conservation of angular momentum: – In the absence of external torque, angular momentum is conserved in all interactions. Conservation of charge: – Electric charge is conserved in all interactions.

7 Three laws describing the relationship between mass and acceleration.  Newton’s first law (law of inertia): An object in motion with a constant velocity will continue in motion unless acted upon by some net external force.  Newton’s second law: Introduces force (F) as responsible for the the change in linear momentum (p):  Newton’s third law (law of action and reaction): The force exerted by body 1 on body 2 is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force that body 2 exerts on body 1. Mechanics

8 Electromagnetism Gauss’s law (Φ E ): (electric field) Gauss’s law (Φ B ): (magnetic field) Faraday’s law: Ampère’s law:

9 Thermodynamics First law: The change in the internal energy ΔU of a system is equal to the heat Q added to a system plus the work W done by the system ΔU = Q + W Second law: It is not possible to convert heat completely into work without some other change taking place. The “zeroth” law: Two systems in thermal equilibrium with a third system are in thermal equilibrium with each other. Third law: It is not possible to achieve an absolute zero temperature

10 STUPID THINGS PEOPLE SAY Lord Kelvin 1900 – “There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement.” Albert Michelson 1894 – “The more important fundamental laws and facts of physical science have all been discovered, and these are so firmly established that the possibility of their ever being supplanted in consequence of new discoverys is exceedingly remote…”

11 Some Mysteries of What are the positive and negative charges in a material and how are they arranged? (atom) How does one explain the distribution of velocities in a gas? (Maxwell-Boltzmann) JDalton’s 1808 Chemical Philosophy sketches

12 Some Mysteries of Why do electrons moving through a gas loose energy in increments? (Franck-Hertz) Why do ‘alpha rays’ bounce back 180 o ? (Geiger- Marsden-Rutherford) What medium do light waves travel in? (Michelson- Morley) Wikipedia on Franck-Hertz

13 Some Mysteries of ~1895 Why does light kick electrons out of a surface only above a certain frequency which is different for each material? (photoelectric effect) What is this radioactivity stuff?

14 Some Mysteries of ~1895 How does one explain the perihelion precession of planet Mercury? Why does the electron have a magnetic moment? (Stern-Gerlach) Is light a particle or a wave? Wikipedia on precession of Mercury

15 EVOLUTION Modern Physics (emergence of relativity & quantum theory) ~1930 ~1890 Philosophy Natural Philosophy & Science (study of) Natural Science (knowledge based)~1600 (first ‘scientists’ appear) ~1634 ~ 1834Physics & Chemistry become separate fields Classical Physics~1687 ~400 BC

16 PEOPLE OF MODERN PHYSICS 10 minute presentations *** next week ***

17 Historical Characters William Hamilton ( ) David Hilbert ( ) Max Planck ( ) Albert Einstein ( ) Niels Bohr ( ) Werner Heisenberg ( ) Samuel Goudsmit ( ) George Uhlenbeck ( ) Hendrik Lorentz ( ) Louis de Broglie ( ) Erwin Schrödinger ( ) Max Born ( ) Wolfgang Pauli ( ) Paul Dirac ( ) John von Neumann ( ) Otto Stern ( ) Walther Gerlach ( ) Pieter Zeeman ( ) Paul Ehrenfest ( )

18 Women People Lise Meitner – Radioactivity & nuclear Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber – neutrons emitted during fission Sulamith Goldhaber – Kaon studies, CP violation, Time-reversal violation Noeme Benczer Koller – 2 photon transitions, Administrative structure of physics in the US Bice Sechi-Zorn – Gluon jets Katherine Way – Nuclear structure databases Chien-Shiung Wu – Parity violation Evans Hayward Faye Ajzenberg-Selove E. Margaret Burbidge – B 2 FH Maria Goeppert-Mayer – Nuclear shell model, spin-orbit, 235U Helen Quinn – Unification of strong, weak, EM forces Rosalind Franklin – X-ray crystallography of double helix Hertha Sponer – Application of QM to atomic & molecular d

19 Men People Otto Hahn Isidov Isaac Rabi – Magnetic properties of nuclei Edward Teller – “If you’ve got a problem, he’s got a bomb” Leo Szilard – Conceived chain reaction, “scientist with a conscience” David Bohm – McCarthyism, thesis work got classified before he could get a degree. Freeman Dyson – Triga, JASON, “A-bomb kid” Eugene Wigner – Symmetry groups Richard Feynman – “½ genius - ½ buffoon, NO, all genius - all buffoon” Abdus Salam – Elementary particles, electroweak theory Alvin Weinberg – “When piles go critical in Chicago, we celebrate with wine, when piles go critical in Tennesse, we celebrate with Jack Daniels” Murray Gell-Mann – “the man with 5 brains” Eugen Merzbacher – Father sold radioactive toothpaste Larry Biedenharn – Father 1 st to sell Coca-cola Enrico Fermi – “Sound of Music” c

20 Pairs of characters Joe Weber ( ) / Virginia Trimble (1942-) – Did early maser work; considered the optical maser – quantum electronics, gravity wave, gravitation,… NAVAL ACADEMY GRAD, quantum electronics, gravity wave, gravitation,… Maurice (1911- ) / Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber Paul Dirac (1902 ) / Margit Wigner Margaret Burbidge (1919- ) / Geoffrey Burbidge (1925- ) D d

21 Presentation Evaluation About Who? Length of Presentation<8 min~ 10 min>12 min Amount of Research PerformedNot MuchAveA Lot Presentation Styleroughavereal smooth Talk was preparedlast minuteneutralfar in advance Balance of Personal vs Physics Informationall physicsreasonable balance all personal Interesting facets of personal info uncoveredhad no lifeAvemovie star Photographs & artifacts of their life uncovered what ’ s a photograph? AveYouTuber This person would be classified as astorm drainbrick in the wall party animal I wish I had picked this person to talk aboutnoneutralyes

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23 Position (x,y,z,t)

24 Forces & Acceleration Three astronauts, propelled by jet packs, push and guide a 120 kg asteroid toward a processing dock, exerting forces F 1 = 32 N F 2 = 55 N F 3 = 41 N  1 = 30 o  2 = 60 o What is the asteroid’s acceleration?

25 Kinetic Energy On Aug 10, 1972, a large meteor skipped across the atmosphere above western US and western Canada, much like a stone skipped across water. The meteorite’s mass was about 4 * 10 6 kg; it’s speed was about 15 km/s. Had it entered the atmosphere vertically; it would have hit the Earth with about the same speed. (a) Calculate the meteorite’s kinetic energy. (b) Express this in terms is tons of TNT. 1 ton TNT = 4.2*10 15 J. Photograph by James M Baker

26 Conservation of Energy

27 Conservation of Energy (reading graphs)

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32 Conservation of Momentum HRW A collision occurs between a 2 kg particle traveling with velocity and a 4 kg particle traveling with velocity After the collision, the particles stick together. What is the final velocity?

33 Conservation of Momentum Particle 1 Alpha particle m 1 = 4 amu Particle 2 Oxygen nucleus m 2 = 16 amu Find v 1i and v 1f

34 Conservation of Angular Momentum HRW A man stands on a platform which is rotating at 1.2 rev/s. His arms are outstretched and he holds a brick in each hand. The total rotational inertia is 6 kg m 2. He brings his arms in so that the rotational inertia decreases to 2 kg m 2. What is his final rotational speed?

35 Conservation of Angular Momentum HRW The rotational inertia of a collapsing spinning star drops to 1/3 its initial value. What is the ratio of the new rotational kinetic energy to the initial rotational kinetic energy?


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