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By: Physics Chapter 10 Nuclear Physics. Basic Concepts There are 3 different types of particles we find within the atom. These are known as the Proton,

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Presentation on theme: "By: Physics Chapter 10 Nuclear Physics. Basic Concepts There are 3 different types of particles we find within the atom. These are known as the Proton,"— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Physics Chapter 10 Nuclear Physics

2 Basic Concepts There are 3 different types of particles we find within the atom. These are known as the Proton, the Neutron, and the Electron. ProtonNeutronElectron Size1 amu Negligible Mass1.67x10 -27 9.11x10 -31 Charge+1e--1e e, or elementary charge, is the basic charge used by the particles of the atom. Elementary charge is always 1.60x10 -19 C.

3 Basic Concepts Cont. The Proton and the Neutron are found in the nucleus of the atom. Whereas the Electron is found outside the nucleus of the atom, it circulates around the nucleus either as the Planetary model of the atom or as the Quantum Mechanical model of the atom. The Quantum Mechanical model of the atom, or the electron cloud, is a more recent finding on the structure of an atom. It shows that electrons do not circulate around the nucleus in a planetary fashion, but instead they follow their own orbitals, and it is next to impossible to locate the exact location of an electron except for knowing the orbital that the electron circulates on.

4 Planetary Model Electron Cloud Model

5 Planck’s Photon: Preface During the time of Einstein and other scientists were well on their way of discovering the different properties of light, two well known theories, both backed by scientific evidence, were accepted as answers to what light could be constructed from. The first theory was the particle theory. This entailed that light was an array of particles made from tiny, massless particles called photons. It was this theory that was backed by Albert Einstein. The second theory was the wave theory of light. This theory was brought about by Christiaan Huygens and suggested that light was in fact, a wave. This was further backed by Thomas Young’s famous Double-Slit experiment. In the end, the two theory’s were equal, but was light a particle, or a wave?

6 Planck’s Photon: Preface Cont. The answer, is both. In the 1920’s, Louis De Broglie had hypothesized that any quantum particle, whether it be an electron, or a photon, exhibits both particle like and wave like properties. The reason was because of the way we interact with the particles themselves. When the Compton effect was done, we could see that light was obviously a wave. However when the Double-Slit experiment was completed, we could evidently see that light was a wave instead of a particle. Wave-Particle Duality was formed when Do Broglie realized that both could be used in conjunction with one another to explain that light in fact reacts to the way we test it. It was Albert Einstein who would be able to back De Broglie’s findings.

7 Planck’s Photon After that, Planck was able to put his own constant (h = 6.63 x 10 -34 ) That was used to equalize both ends of the equation. Because of Planck, Einstein, and De Broglie, we are now able to calculate the frequency, energy, and wavelength of a photon. Under the photon theory of light, a photon is a bundle of electromagnetic energy. Photons are always in motion and have a constant speed of light to all observers, at the speed of light. The formula for speed of light is c = 2.998 x 10 8 m/s.

8 Planck’s Photon We now know that Albert Einstein, had used De Broglie’s findings to spearhead the particle wave duality. The reason that Einstein had agreed with the link between particles and waves was because of Max Planck. Planck had been tackling the problem of blackbody radiation (not important). In order to do so, he had decided to quantise energy. He called it photons. He had theorized that photons had different amounts of energy, and that the frequency of the photons (remember particle wave duality) was proportional to each other. This can be read as (The energy of a photon is equal to the frequency of a photon as well.

9 Binding Energy When doing the electricity unit, we found that like charges would repel each other, and that opposite charges would attract each other. Let’s think about the atom. We know that the positive protons are all centered in the nucleus, whereas all the negative electrons are scattered in a cloud out side the nucleus. Has it ever occurred to you as to why the protons don’t repel away from each other, and why the electrons don’t just stick to the nucleus instead?

10 Binding Energy Cont. The answer is known as the Strong Nuclear Force. The Strong Nuclear Force is a fundamental for of nature that exists between Neutrons that stops that from them from separating due to the opposing forces that exist protons. Mass and energy are proportional and equal to each other. There is always an equal amount of mass and energy in the universe. But they are always converting to each other. For example, an atom’s weight is 1 but if you were to take apart the atom it would weigh more. This is because when the particles are put together, energy is used to combine them and it is converted. Mass is converted to energy to hold the atom together.

11 Radioactivity Sometimes, in unstable isotopes of atoms, the Strong Nuclear Force is unstable, the result, is small bits and pieces of energy are converted to mass and are ejected from an atom. There are 2 different types of decay we need to know about. Nuclear Reactions are reactions that happen within the atom, for example, Alpha decay could be considered a nuclear reaction. Essentially a nuclear reaction is when atoms add together to form bigger atom (fusion) Or they break onto two smaller atoms (fission)

12 Alpha Decay Alpha decay can most simply be described like this: 1) The nucleus of an atom splits into two parts. 2) One of these parts (the alpha particle) goes zooming off into space. 3) The nucleus left behind has its atomic number reduced by 2 and its mass number reduced by 4 (that is, by 2 protons and 2 neutrons).

13 Beta Decay Beta decay is somewhat more complex than alpha decay is. These points present a simplified view of what beta decay actually is: 1) A neutron inside the nucleus of an atom breaks down, changing into a proton. 2) It emits an electron and an anti-neutrino which go zooming off into space. 3) The atomic number goes UP by one and mass number remains unchanged.

14 Particles of Matter

15 The End

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