# NEWTONIAN MECHANICS. Kinematic equations Frictional Force.

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NEWTONIAN MECHANICS

Kinematic equations

Frictional Force

Centripetal acceleration: The acceleration of an object due to its changing direction as it moves at a constant speed in a circular path. Always directed toward the center of the circle

Torque: A force applied at a distance from the pivot to produce a rotation.

momentum: The product of the mass and velocity. impulse: The product of the average force applied and the time is equal to the change in momentum

kinetic energy – Energy of motion gravitational potential energy – Energy due to position in a gravitational field Elastic potential energy – energy due to a stretch or compression

Work: A force applied through a distance that changes the energy of the system Power: The rate of doing work

Hookes law: The force due to a stretch or compression.

Period of a pendulum Period of a mass on a spring The period is the inverse of the frequency

Gravitational Force: The force between two masses Gravitational potential energy: The potential energy between two masses

ELECTRICITY

Coulombs Law: The force between two point charges.

The Electric Field: The force per unit charge at a point in space due to a the distribution of charges.

The electric potential energy between two point charges

The Electric Potential (Voltage): The electrical potential energy per unit charge at a position in an electric field.

Capacitance: Charge stored on two parallel metal plates due to a potential difference between the plates. The capacitance is directly proportional to the Area of the plates and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates.

Energy Stored on a Capacitor

Current – The rate at which charge flows in a circuit

The resistance of a wire is directly proportional to the resistivity and length of the wire and inversely proportional to the cross sectional area.

Ohms Law: The relationship between the voltage, current and resistance. Current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.

Power – The rate at which electrical energy is dissapated.

As resistors are added in series the total resistance goes up. As resistors are added in parallel the total resistance goes down.

Capacitors are just the opposite

MAGNETISM

The magnetic force on a moving charge in a magnetic field

The magnetic force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field

The magnetic field around a current carrying wire

Magnetic Flux: The strength of a magnetic field passing through a loop of wire.

The induced EMF (voltage) is the rate of change of the flux with respect to time.

Motional EMF: The EMF induced in a wire as it cuts across a magnetic field.

FLUIDS

Density: The mass per unit volume

The pressure in a fluid is the sum of the absolute pressure and the gauge pressure.

Buoyancy Force: The buoyant force depends on the density of the fluid, the volume and the gravitational field.

Flow continuity: If the volume of fluid flowing through a pipe is the same then the product of the fluid velocity and cross sectional area of the pipe must be constant

Bernoullis principle: Fast moving fluids result in low pressure.

THERMODYNAMICS

Pressure is the Force per unit area measured in N/m 2 = Pa

Ideal gas law: Assumes all the internal energy is kinetic energy. Forces between particles are negligible.

1 st Law of thermodynamics: Heat added to a system (gas) is equal to the work done by the gas plus its change in internal energy Work is done by the gas when the volume increases. Work is done on the gas when the volume decreases.

Efficiency – The ratio of the work done to the input heat (energy) The maximum efficiency of a heat engine is given by the Carnot equation.

WAVES AND OPTICS

The wave equation:

Waves slow down in different mediums. The ratio of the speed in a vacuum to the speed in the medium is the index of refraction

Refraction: The bending of light when it travels from one medium to another. The angle of incidence is related to the angle of refraction by snells law

Total internal reflection occurs when light travels between two mediums where n 1 >n 2. If the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle, total internal reflection occurs.

The lens and mirror equation gives the relationship between the image distance, object distance and focal length

Magnification:

Double slit interference: Evidence that light is a wave. θ is angle to the nth order bright spot and x m is the distance. L is the distance to the screen and d is the slit separation

The same equation work for single slit diffraction except they give the dark spots.

Thin film interference: The thickness of the film determines whether constructive or destructive interference occurs.

λ n is the wavelength in the thin film

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR

The Energy of a photon

The Photoelectric Effect: Evidence for the particle theory of light. Photons incident on a metal eject electrons from the metal with a maximum kinetic energy that depends on the frequency (f) and work function of the metal ( ϕ )

The slope of the graph is planks constant and the y intercept is the work function. The x intercept is the threshold frequency

DeBroglie wavelength equation relates the wavelength to the momentum of a particle.

Energy – Mass equivalence: In a nuclear reaction mass is converted to energy. The mass defect Δm is related to energy by the square of the speed of light.

Alpha particle: + Beta particle: -Beta particle: Neutron: Proton:

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