Presentation on theme: "The Taiga Biome By: Lauren Turner And Matt Tibbs."— Presentation transcript:
The Taiga Biome By: Lauren Turner And Matt Tibbs
History The last ice age, known as the Wisconsin glaciations, began to recede about 20,000 years ago and forest cover gradually regenerated over Canada. It was not until about 5,000 years ago that the boreal forest took on its present character. Post World War II For the early northern Aboriginal peoples, the boreal forest was not so much a landscape or resource as a World, a complex natural support system on which they founded their lives. It provided food and materials for shelter, clothing, transportation and medicines. It was the substance of their tools and crafts, the source of their spirituality.
Climate Winters last 6 to 10 months. They are dark and cold with lots of snow and can have up to 20 hours of daylight. Average temperature is below freezing: -34’ F and can be as low as - 76’ F In the summer the highest the temperature has been was 104’ F, on average it is 50’ F The average precipitation in the summer is between 10- 20 inches in the winter it is 20-40
Plants The main reasons firs, spruces and pines are the dominant trees in the boreal forest, and thus define the biome is because they are adapted to the extreme conditions brought about by the cold, including the winter-induced drought and the short growing season. Because of the cold temperatures decomposition is slow, dead vegetation stays on the forest floor creating a sponge like covering. Since decomposition is slow, the soil is thin and lacks nutrients The worlds oldest trees are found in the taiga biome
Animals The American black bear. The black bear's coat is well adapted to the cold weather of winter because of its many layers of shaggy fur. Its claws are also very adapted to its environment, this is because they are just the right length to climb the many trees that surround its forest home. There are many swamps, mountains and forests in the Taiga that are home to the Bobcat. The bobcat has two color changes per year. The fur of the bobcat is striped, blotchy, and dense; tawny gray for the winter and reddish brown for the summer. The baby bobcat has spotted fur that disappears when they get older. A not so common animal is the Canadian lynx. The lynx is almost identical to a regular house cat, but larger. It has a powerful body on short, furry legs attached to hefty feet, and a bobbed, black-tipped tail. Its fur is spotted and yellowish-brown to grey. It has a collar of fur around its face, giving a triangular shape. It also has long black ear tufts.
Adaptations Most birds migrate to warmer regions for the winter. They migrate back in the spring because of the surplus of insects Animals that stay produce heavier coats of fur and some change color such as the snow- shoe rabbit Mice and moles tunnel under the snow in order to stay protected The Canada lynx's wide paws work like snowshoes, they distribute the lynx's weight so that it can move easier in the snow. Grizzly bears avoid the cold by going into their dens in the fall and stay there until spring. They have a protective layer of fat that allows them to stay in their dens while the weather is cold. The leaves or needles of evergreen trees lose less water than other kinds of leaves. This helps them survive. Some broad-leaved trees like birch and aspen have adapted to too. Both trees are very flexible and don't break easily when covered with ice and snow!
Threats to the Taiga The biggest threat today to this biome is the exploration and development of oil and natural gas reserves. Global warming is also a threat
Between 2001 and 2003, forest fire activity tripled in area. burn areas have only continued to grow since then. The world was exposed to the devastating effects of boreal forest burns in 2010 when Russian forest fire air quality killed an estimated 56,000 Global temperature rise have caused lower rainfall and higher temperatures throughout the year. This has led to a more active fire season in the boreal forests; additionally longer fall and spring seasons have shortened the winter freeze and led to more sun exposure on methane filled permafrost and ice. Boreal forest biomes act as carbon sinks for the world’s atmosphere, which means that the biome actually sequesters carbon from the air. However, as climate disruption worsens, boreal forests switch from being carbon sinks to huge greenhouse gas emitters. What's Happening Now