Presentation on theme: "U.S. Imperialism: The Urge to Expand"— Presentation transcript:
1U.S. Imperialism: 1870-1914 The Urge to Expand Countries rushed to establish overseas empiresU.S. had little interest in expanding after Civil WarPrimary concerns were: Rebuilding South, Settling West, Developing industryMajor expansion: 1867 purchase of Alaska from RussiaBought by Sec. of State Seward for $7 millionWorth it when first gold & later oil were discoveredIndustrial expansion will lead to colonial expansion
2An Imperial Era European countries were responsible for Imperialism Gaining colonies served 2 economic purposesprovided more raw materialsprovided new markets to sell goodsColonies were established to protect new markets from competition from other industrialized nations.Areas of Africa, Asia, & Pacific Islands were quickly claimed.
3Why Expand??? Economic growth made expansion necessary U.S. had surplus of food & manufactured goodsWe needed new marketsU.S. needed to compete for colonies to maintain its economic & military strengthOne supporter, Alfred T. Mahan, wrote a book supporting American expansion: The Influence of Sea Power Upon HistoryBelieved U.S. needed protect its economic interests in foreign marketsBest way to do that was to build a strong navy
4Josiah Strong: supported expansion in order to spread democracy & Christianity to inferior peoples Frederick Jackson Turner: believed that America’s vanishing frontier necessitated our expansion to prevent unrest.U.S. Action it the PacificU.S. showed strong interest in Samoa & HawaiiBoth would serve as naval bases & commercial ports. Both were in U.S. control by 1900.
5Movement For War Against Spain U.S. avoided war in late 1800s: growing naval strengthU.S. citizens & leaders confident in the nation’s powerResulted in jingoism – exaggerated national prideU.S. had economic investments in CubaUpset at brutal tactics Spain used to rule CubaSome Americans wanted to annex CubaAmerican journalists reported the atrocitiesUsed a style of reporting called yellow journalismReporting helped anti-Spanish feelings grow in U.S.Would lead to the Spanish-American War in 1898
6Protection of Interests in Cuba To protect American interests, Pres. McKinley sent the U.S.S. Maine to HavanaMysteriously exploded in Feb. 1898; killed 266 menU.S. journalists blamed Spain; wanted revengePres. McKinley gave in to public opinionCongress declared war on Spain in April 1898Quickly defeated Spain in the PhilippinesFighting also in Cuba
7“Splendid Little War”Most famous battle was the Battle of San Juan Hill led to Roosevelt’s Rough Riders“splendid little war” was over in less than 4 monthsCubans were given their independenceU.S. gained Philippines, Guam, & Puerto RicoU.S. emerged from the Spanish-American War as a leading world power
8***U.S. debated over colonization*** Challenge of an Empire***U.S. debated over colonization***Ultimate Question: What to do in the Philippines?Many believed we should make the Philippines a U.S. colonyOthers fought colonialism w/ the following argumentsConstitution had no provision about itFear that an overseas empire would involve us in war w/ other powersLength of distance b/t Philippines & U.S.Would involve U.S. closely in Asian affairsAlthough the Filipinos resisted, U.S. made Philippines part of our empire until after WWII
9Imperialism EQ’s 1Discuss 2 reasons why the U.S. had no interest in expanding after the Civil War.Explain the 2 economic purposes for gathering colonies.What was the main cause of the Spanish American War?Discuss the results of the Spanish American War.Explain the views of Alfred T. Mahan, Josiah Strong, and Frederick Jackson Turner.
10Asserting Power: Rivalry vs. China Annexation of Guam & Philippines increased U.S. interest in Asia, esp. in ChinaChina had been divided into spheres of influenceRestricted U.S. trade w/ ChinaU.S. proposed equal trade for all nations w/ China: called Open Door Policy--No one else interestedChinese tried to expel all foreigners in 1900 Boxer RebellionU.S. sent help to stop the rebellionFeared European powers would divide China like AfricaU.S. proposed Open Door Policy again stressing that China remain independentAccepted the second timeU.S. & everyone else could freely & equally trade w/ China
11The Panama CanalSince 1500s, Americans & Europeans had longed for canal to connect the two oceansU.S. especially wanted it1) would shorten the length of the trip from east to west2) would reduce cost of merchant shipping3) would eliminate heavy expense of maintaining two separate navies1901, U.S. signed a treaty that gave us sole right to build, operate, & defend a canal in one of two placesNicaragua or PanamaU.S. decided on Panama, then controlled by Colombia
12Problems for the Canal Tried to negotiate w/ Colombia Offered to pay $10 million up front$250,000 as an annual rent thereafterNo deal; Colombians held out for more moneyPanamanians were upset; wanted their independenceU.S. helped Panama plan a revoltSent a warship to make sure the revolt was successfulPanama declared its independence in 1903Treaty was negotiated w/ PanamaProvisions were the same offered ColombiaCanal zone ended up being wider
13Problems continued………. Before construction, the mosquito problem had to be solvedCarried malaria & yellow feverSolved by draining swamps, cutting brush, paving muddy roads, destroying marshes, spraying insecticide everywhere, & putting screens on windowsCanal construction began in 1906 & was completed in 1914Next 7 years 43,400 workers labored on the canalCost 5,600 livesAbout 40 miles longMinimum depth is 41 ft.Minimum width is 300 ft.Takes 7-8 hours to travel through the canal
14U.S. Foreign Policy: Early 1900’s **T.R. believed we had a superior civilization**Gave us the right to lead in world affairsWas fond of the West African proverb, "Speak softly and carry a big stick, you will go far"Considered the Caribbean a sphere of influenceBelieved the U.S. should be active in the affairs of the Western HemisphereThe beginning of a new policy in the Americas called Big Stick Diplomacy: use U.S. power to keep peace & prevent wrongdoing
15Roosevelt Corollary 1904, Roosevelt announced his new policy said U.S. had the right to exercise "international police power" over Latin America countries that couldn't or didn't take care of their own affairsBecame known as the Roosevelt CorollaryWas added on to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 (said the W. Hemisphere was no longer open to European colonization)Told European nations to keep out of Latin America for any reason.
16Dollar Diplomacy: Taft **Pres. Taft modified America's foreign policy**Believed American investment abroad would bring stability to troubled regionsWould also add power & profit to the U.S. w/o the use of forceU.S. followed this new policy in Asia & Latin AmericaTaft encouraged U.S. bankers to replace European bankers as the major lenders to the countries in Latin AmericaU.S. didn't want to give the European nations any reason to send troops to the AmericasOverall goal of "Dollar Diplomacy" was to reduce the chance of armed intervention by European nations
17Moral Diplomacy: Wilson **Pres. Wilson had little interest in foreign diplomacy**World affairs would leave him no choice (WWI)Believed U.S. had mission to lead the worldGoal of Moral Diplomacy was to make the U.S. the “conscience of the world”condemned colonialismspread democracy & promoted peaceResult of 3 DiplomaciesU.S. kept ships & troops in Asia & Latin AmericaAmerican business interests spanned the globeU.S. was resented & despised by Latin American nationsU.S. was a powerful part of the world communityMeant the U.S. could not ignore the war in Europe that had started in 1914
18Imperialism Assignment Who was Queen Liliuokalani? Explain the role of sugar in the acquisition of Hawaii. Why was Queen Liliuokalani removed from power?Explain specific economic reason for Imperialism.Define: imperialism, protectorate, Anglo-Saxonism, Pan-Americanism, yellow journalism, jingoism, Platt Amendment, Rough Riders, Sphere of Influence, Open Door Policy, Boxer Rebellion, Great White Fleet, Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, Roosevelt Corollary, Dollar Diplomacy.Identify Significance: Panama Canal, T.R., Spanish American War, Foraker Act, Jose Marti, Clara Barton, Alfred T. Mahan, Henry Cabot Lodge, Josiah Strong, Matthew C. Perry