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U.S. Imperialism: The Urge to Expand

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Imperialism: The Urge to Expand"— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Imperialism: 1870-1914 The Urge to Expand
Countries rushed to establish overseas empires U.S. had little interest in expanding after Civil War Primary concerns were: Rebuilding South, Settling West, Developing industry Major expansion: 1867 purchase of Alaska from Russia Bought by Sec. of State Seward for $7 million Worth it when first gold & later oil were discovered Industrial expansion will lead to colonial expansion

2 An Imperial Era European countries were responsible for Imperialism
Gaining colonies served 2 economic purposes provided more raw materials provided new markets to sell goods Colonies were established to protect new markets from competition from other industrialized nations. Areas of Africa, Asia, & Pacific Islands were quickly claimed.

3 Why Expand??? Economic growth made expansion necessary
U.S. had surplus of food & manufactured goods We needed new markets U.S. needed to compete for colonies to maintain its economic & military strength One supporter, Alfred T. Mahan, wrote a book supporting American expansion: The Influence of Sea Power Upon History Believed U.S. needed protect its economic interests in foreign markets Best way to do that was to build a strong navy

4 Josiah Strong: supported expansion in order to spread democracy & Christianity to inferior peoples
Frederick Jackson Turner: believed that America’s vanishing frontier necessitated our expansion to prevent unrest. U.S. Action it the Pacific U.S. showed strong interest in Samoa & Hawaii Both would serve as naval bases & commercial ports. Both were in U.S. control by 1900.

5 Movement For War Against Spain
U.S. avoided war in late 1800s: growing naval strength U.S. citizens & leaders confident in the nation’s power Resulted in jingoism – exaggerated national pride U.S. had economic investments in Cuba Upset at brutal tactics Spain used to rule Cuba Some Americans wanted to annex Cuba American journalists reported the atrocities Used a style of reporting called yellow journalism Reporting helped anti-Spanish feelings grow in U.S. Would lead to the Spanish-American War in 1898

6 Protection of Interests in Cuba
To protect American interests, Pres. McKinley sent the U.S.S. Maine to Havana Mysteriously exploded in Feb. 1898; killed 266 men U.S. journalists blamed Spain; wanted revenge Pres. McKinley gave in to public opinion Congress declared war on Spain in April 1898 Quickly defeated Spain in the Philippines Fighting also in Cuba

7 “Splendid Little War” Most famous battle was the Battle of San Juan Hill led to Roosevelt’s Rough Riders “splendid little war” was over in less than 4 months Cubans were given their independence U.S. gained Philippines, Guam, & Puerto Rico U.S. emerged from the Spanish-American War as a leading world power

8 ***U.S. debated over colonization***
Challenge of an Empire ***U.S. debated over colonization*** Ultimate Question: What to do in the Philippines? Many believed we should make the Philippines a U.S. colony Others fought colonialism w/ the following arguments Constitution had no provision about it Fear that an overseas empire would involve us in war w/ other powers Length of distance b/t Philippines & U.S. Would involve U.S. closely in Asian affairs Although the Filipinos resisted, U.S. made Philippines part of our empire until after WWII

9 Imperialism EQ’s 1 Discuss 2 reasons why the U.S. had no interest in expanding after the Civil War. Explain the 2 economic purposes for gathering colonies. What was the main cause of the Spanish American War? Discuss the results of the Spanish American War. Explain the views of Alfred T. Mahan, Josiah Strong, and Frederick Jackson Turner.

10 Asserting Power: Rivalry vs. China
Annexation of Guam & Philippines increased U.S. interest in Asia, esp. in China China had been divided into spheres of influence Restricted U.S. trade w/ China U.S. proposed equal trade for all nations w/ China: called Open Door Policy--No one else interested Chinese tried to expel all foreigners in 1900 Boxer Rebellion U.S. sent help to stop the rebellion Feared European powers would divide China like Africa U.S. proposed Open Door Policy again stressing that China remain independent Accepted the second time U.S. & everyone else could freely & equally trade w/ China

11 The Panama Canal Since 1500s, Americans & Europeans had longed for canal to connect the two oceans U.S. especially wanted it 1) would shorten the length of the trip from east to west 2) would reduce cost of merchant shipping 3) would eliminate heavy expense of maintaining two separate navies 1901, U.S. signed a treaty that gave us sole right to build, operate, & defend a canal in one of two places Nicaragua or Panama U.S. decided on Panama, then controlled by Colombia

12 Problems for the Canal Tried to negotiate w/ Colombia
Offered to pay $10 million up front $250,000 as an annual rent thereafter No deal; Colombians held out for more money Panamanians were upset; wanted their independence U.S. helped Panama plan a revolt Sent a warship to make sure the revolt was successful Panama declared its independence in 1903 Treaty was negotiated w/ Panama Provisions were the same offered Colombia Canal zone ended up being wider

13 Problems continued……….
Before construction, the mosquito problem had to be solved Carried malaria & yellow fever Solved by draining swamps, cutting brush, paving muddy roads, destroying marshes, spraying insecticide everywhere, & putting screens on windows Canal construction began in 1906 & was completed in 1914 Next 7 years 43,400 workers labored on the canal Cost 5,600 lives About 40 miles long Minimum depth is 41 ft. Minimum width is 300 ft. Takes 7-8 hours to travel through the canal

14 U.S. Foreign Policy: Early 1900’s
**T.R. believed we had a superior civilization** Gave us the right to lead in world affairs Was fond of the West African proverb, "Speak softly and carry a big stick, you will go far" Considered the Caribbean a sphere of influence Believed the U.S. should be active in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere The beginning of a new policy in the Americas called Big Stick Diplomacy: use U.S. power to keep peace & prevent wrongdoing

15 Roosevelt Corollary 1904, Roosevelt announced his new policy
said U.S. had the right to exercise "international police power" over Latin America countries that couldn't or didn't take care of their own affairs Became known as the Roosevelt Corollary Was added on to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 (said the W. Hemisphere was no longer open to European colonization) Told European nations to keep out of Latin America for any reason.

16 Dollar Diplomacy: Taft
**Pres. Taft modified America's foreign policy** Believed American investment abroad would bring stability to troubled regions Would also add power & profit to the U.S. w/o the use of force U.S. followed this new policy in Asia & Latin America Taft encouraged U.S. bankers to replace European bankers as the major lenders to the countries in Latin America U.S. didn't want to give the European nations any reason to send troops to the Americas Overall goal of "Dollar Diplomacy" was to reduce the chance of armed intervention by European nations

17 Moral Diplomacy: Wilson
**Pres. Wilson had little interest in foreign diplomacy** World affairs would leave him no choice (WWI) Believed U.S. had mission to lead the world Goal of Moral Diplomacy was to make the U.S. the “conscience of the world” condemned colonialism spread democracy & promoted peace Result of 3 Diplomacies U.S. kept ships & troops in Asia & Latin America American business interests spanned the globe U.S. was resented & despised by Latin American nations U.S. was a powerful part of the world community Meant the U.S. could not ignore the war in Europe that had started in 1914

18 Imperialism Assignment
Who was Queen Liliuokalani? Explain the role of sugar in the acquisition of Hawaii. Why was Queen Liliuokalani removed from power? Explain specific economic reason for Imperialism. Define: imperialism, protectorate, Anglo-Saxonism, Pan-Americanism, yellow journalism, jingoism, Platt Amendment, Rough Riders, Sphere of Influence, Open Door Policy, Boxer Rebellion, Great White Fleet, Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, Roosevelt Corollary, Dollar Diplomacy. Identify Significance: Panama Canal, T.R., Spanish American War, Foraker Act, Jose Marti, Clara Barton, Alfred T. Mahan, Henry Cabot Lodge, Josiah Strong, Matthew C. Perry

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