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NEOCLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. INTRODUCTION TO NEOCLASSICISM began in the mid-18th century as a return to idealized & authentic classical forms, in reaction.

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Presentation on theme: "NEOCLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. INTRODUCTION TO NEOCLASSICISM began in the mid-18th century as a return to idealized & authentic classical forms, in reaction."— Presentation transcript:

1 NEOCLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE

2 INTRODUCTION TO NEOCLASSICISM began in the mid-18th century as a return to idealized & authentic classical forms, in reaction to the excesses of Baroque & Rococo interpretations of Classicism one of many revivals of ancient Greek & Roman styles in the history of architecture earlier revivals include the Romanesque, Renaissance & Baroque styles

3 INTRODUCTION TO NEOCLASSICISM in its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece & the architecture of Italian Andrea Palladio

4 INTRODUCTION TO NEOCLASSICISM ~intellectually Neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, sixteenth-century Renaissance Classicism~

5 CHARACTERISTICS symmetrical shape tall columns that rise the full height of the building triangular pediment domed roof

6 CHARACTERISTICS obsessed with straight lines, archaeological motifs & idealized vision of nature

7 FRANCE ~Neoclassicism first gained influence in Paris~ ~architects laid the rational & geometrical groundwork for architecture~

8 FRANCE Palace of Versailles, FrancePantheon, Paris

9 ENGLAND ~neoclassical architecture interweaved with the Picturesque tradition~ ~values order, harmony, balance & tradition in the work of art~

10 ENGLAND Picturesque meaning literally "in the manner of a picture; fit to be made into a picture" was a word used as early as 1703 (Oxford English Dictionary) derived from an Italian term pittoresco, meaning, "in the manner of a painter" William Gilpin's Essay on Prints (1768) defined picturesque as "... a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, which is agreeable in a picture"

11 AMERICA ~ started about 1780s until 1850s ~ ~ symbolizes the value of the newly established republic ~

12 AMERICA ~use of colonnades & arches, bricks / stone facades~ ~overall building design usually follows the pattern of classical column~ ~ a prominent base with a ceremonial entrance ~ ~ a uniform shaft with little decoration ~ ~a distinctive pronounce top~

13 AMERICA – FEDERALIST STYLE Federalist style ~the American version of neoclassical architecture~ ~a traditionalist approach to classicism, heavily influenced by English models~ ~ famous architects – Charles Bulfinch, Samuel McIntire ~ Old State House, HartfordDerby Summer House, Massachusetts

14 CHARLES BULFINCH ~his works are notable for their simplicity, balance & good taste~ ~as the origin of a distinctive Federal style of classical domes, columns, & ornament that dominated early 19th-century American architecture~ Massachusetts Statehouse, Boston

15 AMERICA – IDEALIST STYLE Idealist style ~ an intellectual & moral approach to classicism, at first linked to Roman models~ ~symbolic & associational values stressed, with a goal of creating an expressive ‘speaking architecture’~ ~famous architect – Thomas Jefferson~ Monticello – Jefferson’s residence Drayton Hall, Carolina

16 AMERICA – IDEALIST STYLE ~ influenced by French neo-classicism in his search for an architecture which would symbolize the values of the newly established republic ~ ~ created & designed the University of Virginia, with the awareness that in order to fulfill his vision of a new American society, public education is necessary~ ~ architectural form of university, rooted in ideas for an academic village~ ~head of composition was the great circular library modeled on the Pantheon~ Rotunda at the University of Virginia Roman Pantheon

17 AMERICA – RATIONALIST STYLE Baltimore Basilica, Baltimore United States Capitol, Washington Rationalist style ~ emphasized structure & classical building techniques, such as stone vaulting & domes ~ ~ example of architect – Benjamin Latrobe ~

18 AMERICA – RATIONALIST STYLE Interior of Baltimore Basilica, Baltimore

19 AMERICA – GREEK REVIVAL STYLE Capitol building, Indianapolis Capitol Building, Columbus Greek Revival style ~ the first truly national style in the United States ~ ~ the popularity of the style was due to strong associations with classical tradition & democracy~ ~ the Greek Revival was very adaptable ~

20 THE END

21 In England – neoclassical architecture interweaved with the Picturesque tradition In Germany – a national style developed with a cultural significance Originally, it begun with the influence by etchings of Roman buildings by Giovanni Battista Piranesi Later, after the discoveries in Herculaneum, Pompeii and Athens, people have clearer idea of what they want to achieve through this architecture The influence does not only stop in Europe, but also went across the Atlantic to America

22 Example of buildings in Europe Carousel du Louvre, ParisArch de Triomphe du Carousel, Paris

23 The extent of influence In America it started about 1780s until 1850s Symbolizes the value of the newly established republic Divided into 4 phases - Federalist style - Idealist style - Rationalist - Greek revival Amongst the characteristics are the use of colonnades and arches, bricks or stone facades, the overall building design usually follows the pattern of classical column; a pronounced base with a ceremonial entrance, a uniform shaft with little decoration, and a distinctive pronounce top.

24 influenced by French neo-classicism in his search for an architecture which would symbolize the values of the newly established republic statesman, politician, lawyer, author, educator and architect, he may be the first American who have objectively thought about architecture in terms of a return to the first principles his residence, Monticello – has the effect of a one-storeyed building like the villas of ancient Rome, & recalls the life of ancient Roman farms symbol of order, harmony and poetic created and designed the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, with the awareness that in order to fulfill his vision of a new American society, public education is necessary architectural form of university, rooted in ideas for an academic village comprised of two lines of 5 pavilion linked by colonnades head of composition was the great circular library modeled on the pantheon

25 Exterior of Drayton Hall, Charleston

26 Jefferson Library of the University of Virginia, Charlottesville,

27 The different phases Rationalist – Emphasized structure and classical building techniques, such as stone vaulting and domes. Example of architect – Benjamin Latrobe

28 Benjamin Latrobe Jefferson’s desire for monumental buildings as symbols of the high moral purpose of the infant republic led him to announce a competition in 1792 for the United States Capitol and President’s House in Washington, Latrobe was amongst the winner Bank of Pennsylvania – Greek Ionic portico at each end and resembles a temple Capitol – flanked by 24 corinthian columns, Supreme Court chamber – 3 arches supported on stunted Greek Doric columns of sandstone and strangely lobed umbrella-like half dome (shows influence by Ledoux) In lower staircase-vestibule – columns with an American order of maize-leaf capitals, described as the new order of classical architecture The columns of the rotunda, 16 in number, must be more slender than the ionic order will admit, and ought not to be of the Corinthian because the chamber itself is of the ionic order, Latrobe have composed a capital of leaves and flowers of the tobacco plant which has an intermediate effect approaching the Corinthian order, and retaining the simplicity of the Clepsydra or Temple of the Winds

29 Exterior of the Capitol, Washington by Latrobe

30 Interior of St Mary’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, Baltimore by Latrobe

31 The staircase vestibule with maize-leaf capitals in the Capitol, Washington by Latrobe


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