Presentation on theme: "Soups. Types Clear and Thin Soups-bouillon, broth, consomme Thickened Soups-milk or cream (white sauce), vegetables, grains or pasta Vegetable-carrots,"— Presentation transcript:
Types Clear and Thin Soups-bouillon, broth, consomme Thickened Soups-milk or cream (white sauce), vegetables, grains or pasta Vegetable-carrots, onions, legumes Fruit-melon, blueberry Cold- Borscht, Gazpacho, Vichyssoise Noodle Dessert-Oriental origin
Stocks for Soups Meat Stocks- cracked bones, raw meat. More mature animal has more flavor. Started in cool water as cold water allows more efficient transfer of flavor to the liquid. Poultry Stock-more mature, free-range have better flavor. Fish Stock-backbones and heads of lean white fish Vegetable Stocks Flavoring-Bouquet garni includes parsley, thyme, bay leaf and other aromatic herbs or spices
Clear and Thin Soups Bouillon-simmered meat and vegetables, usually unstrained and not clear Broth- simmered meat and vegetables, usually strained and clear Consomme-simmered meat and vegetables, clarified by egg white Thin soups have a broth base but meats, vegetables, and/or starch such as pasta, rice or barley, and seaweed allow for some thickening to occur
Thickened Soups Cream Soup-thin white sauce made of milk, butter and flour Bisques-cream used as thickening agent Pureed vegetables Starch based products like rice, noodles, barley, bread, or plain starch
Salads Appealing way to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables
Types Appetizer - small, green or tart fruits, tart dressing Dinner accompaniment - light, crisp, tart to complement the entree, variety of dressings Main course - generous portion, protein, potato, rice, pasta with greens or other vegetables, variety of dressings Dessert - medium to small portion of fruit, rich, sweet dressing
Ingredients All should be edible Should be clean, free of defects Raw fruits and vegetables should be at optimum stage of maturity All inedible portions should be removed Nutrients vary with ingredients
Preparation Thorough cleaning Remove excess water Don’t mince vegetables as paste may form when dressing is added Marinades - add flavor to food Marinating is coating food lightly with dressing or oil and allowing them to stand prior to salad preparation. Drain marinade before adding ingredients to salad Marinating is coating food lightly with dressing or oil and allowing them to stand prior to salad preparation. Drain marinade before adding ingredients to salad
Characteristics of a good salad Combination for contrast in color, texture, and flavor Size variation for contrast and interest Pieces of fish and poultry should be large enough to be identified Pasta should be firm enough to be in discrete pieces Firm foods should be cut into bite size pieces
Dressings Part of salad Dressing determined by use of salad Flavor should complement flavor of salad Can add significant calories to salads: reduced calories and no-fat versions are available
Properties Gelatin is an effective jelling agent due to the unique amino acid make-up. One-third or the amino acids are glycine, one-fourth are proline and hydroxyproline which provides a high number of acid or basic amino groups giving high polarity and great affinity for water. Made from demineralized bones and skin. Then purified.
Dispersion in Liquid Soaked a short time in cold water, then heated to form sol (dispersion of protein in liquid). Used for unflavored gelatin. Sol can form in hot water - gelatin desserts, Jello. Sol can form as gelatin is finely pulverized and separated with sugar allowing better access to liquid.
Gel Formation Small sections of a number of gelatin molecules unite by lateral association or cross-linking to form crystallites which give three dimensional network that immobilizes liquid. Chemical forces bind gel. Gelatin needed to set 1 cup water = 1 1/2 teaspoon.
Uses in Food Preparation Gelatin salads such as aspics or fruited salads. Whips - gelatin cooled to consistency of raw egg whites, them whipped or beaten to introduce air and form a foam. Sponges - gelatin foam and egg white foam combined. Creams 1. Bavarian - gelatin foam and whipped cream 1. Bavarian - gelatin foam and whipped cream 2. Spanish - custard thickened with gelatin, 2. Spanish - custard thickened with gelatin, beaten to a foam, then combined with egg beaten to a foam, then combined with egg white foam white foam
Power Point Author Dr. Jane Ross The University of Vermont Foods and Nutrition Basic Concepts of Food