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Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C HAPTER 9 SOUPS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. U NDERSTANDING S OUPS Clear soups: all based on a clear, un-thickened broth or stock. –Broth and bouillon Simple, clear soups without solid ingredients. –Vegetable soup Clear, seasoned stock or broth with the addition of one or more vegetables. –Consommé A rich, flavorful stock or broth that has been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent. C LASSIFICATION OF S OUPS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. U NDERSTANDING S OUPS Thick soups: opaque soups thickened either by adding a thickening agent, such as a roux, or by puréeing one or more of their ingredients. –Cream soups Thickened with roux, beurre manié, liaison, or other added thickening agents. Plus milk and/or cream. –Purées Naturally thickened by puréeing one or more of ingredients. Purées are normally based on starchy ingredients. CLASSIFICATION OF SOUPS (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. U NDERSTANDING S OUPS Bisques –Thickened soups made from shellfish and almost always finished with cream. –The term bisque is sometimes a marketing term rather than a technical term. Chowder –Hearty soups made from fish, shellfish, and/or vegetables. –Chowder usually contains milk and potatoes. CLASSIFICATION OF SOUPS (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. U NDERSTANDING S OUPS Potage : Potage is a term sometimes associated with thick, hearty soups, but it is actually a general term for soup. –A clear soup is called a potage clair in French. CLASSIFICATION OF SOUPS (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. U NDERSTANDING S OUPS Specialty soups are distinguished by unusual ingredients or methods. –Turtle soup –Gumbo –Peanut soup –Cold fruit soup –Cold soups Jellied Consommé Cold cream of cucumber soup Vichyssoise SPECIALTY AND NATIONAL SOUPS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. U NDERSTANDING S OUPS Vegetable soups for vegans must contain no meat or any other animal product. –Must be made with water or vegetable stock. –Use a starch slurry or a roux made with oil rather than butter to bind thick soups. VEGETARIAN SOUPS AND LOW-FAT SOUPS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. S ERVICE OF S OUPS Appetizer portion: 6–8 oz (200–250 mL) Main course portion: 10–12 oz (300–350 mL) S TANDARD P ORTION S IZES
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. S ERVICE OF S OUPS Serve hot soups hot, in hot cups or bowls. Serve cold soups cold, in chilled bowls or even nested in a larger bowl of crushed ice. Heat small batches frequently to replenish the steam table with fresh soup. For consommés, vegetable garnish is heated separately and added at service time. H OLDING FOR S ERVICE
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. S ERVICE OF S OUPS Soup garnishes may be divided into three groups: 1. Garnishes in the soup 2. Toppings 3. Accompaniments G ARNISH
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C LEAR S OUPS The difference between a broth and a stock is: –Broth Made by simmering meat and vegetables Has a more pronounced flavor of meat or poultry than a stock –Stock Made by simmering bones and vegetables Generally richer in gelatin content than a broth B ROTH
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C LEAR S OUPS Consommé means, literally, “completed” or “concentrated.” The stock used for preparing consommé must be strong, rich, and full-flavored. –Clarification is second in importance to strength. Consommé
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C LEAR S OUPS How Clarification Works Proteins called albumins dissolve in cold water. When the water is heated, they gradually solidify or coagulate and rise to the surface. These proteins collect all the tiny particles that cloud a stock and carry them to the surface. The stock is then left perfectly clear. CONSOMMÉ (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C LEAR S OUPS Basic Ingredients The mixture of ingredients we use to clarify a stock is called the clearmeat or the clarification. Lean ground meat Egg whites Mirepoix Acid ingredients CONSOMMÉ (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P ROCEDURE 1. The stock is well mixed with the clarification ingredients and set on a burner to begin heating. 2. The raft begins to rise to the top. 3. The raft has almost completely formed. The consommé will continue to simmer for a total of 1.5 hours. Consommé
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. V EGETABLE S OUPS Start with a clear, flavorful stock or broth. Select vegetables and other ingredients whose flavors go well together. Cut vegetables uniformly. Cook vegetables slowly in a little butter before combining with liquid. Cook starches such as grains and pasta separately and add to the soup later. Observe differences in cooking times. Don’t overcook. GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING AND EVALUATING VEGETABLE SOUPS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C REAM S OUPS Cream soups are simply diluted velouté or béchamel sauces, flavored with the ingredient for which they are named. –Thicken a liquid with roux (or other starch). –Cook and purée the ingredients. –Add the milk or cream. What we now call cream soups were divided into two groups in the past: – Veloutés and creams T HE C LASSIC C REAM S OUPS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C REAM S OUPS Appearance –Shiny surface. Good color from main ingredient. –Not discolored from overcooking; attractively garnished. Taste –Distinct flavor of the main ingredient. –No starchy taste from uncooked roux. Texture –About the consistency of heavy cream; not too thick. –Smooth; no graininess or lumps. STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR CREAM SOUPS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C REAM S OUPS Observe the following guidelines to help prevent curdling: 1.Do not combine milk and simmering soup stock without the presence of roux or other starch. 2.Do not add cold milk or cream to simmering soup. 3.Do not boil soups after milk or cream is added. CURDLING
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Purée Soups 1. Sweat onions, mirepoix, or other fresh vegetables in fat. 2. Add stock or other liquid. T ECHNIQUES
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 3. Add starchy vegetables or other remaining vegetables. 4. Purée the soup with an immersion blender, a food processor, or food mill. TECHNIQUES (CONT’D) Purée Soups
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