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By Alexis Avila & Nilanka Lord.  Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them  Classification is very difficult  Originally classified.

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Presentation on theme: "By Alexis Avila & Nilanka Lord.  Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them  Classification is very difficult  Originally classified."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Alexis Avila & Nilanka Lord

2  Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them  Classification is very difficult  Originally classified under Kingdom Monera with the rest of the bacteria  Studies showed that 50% of their genes did not resemble those of other bacteria

3  Can only live in areas without oxygen  Extremophillic (thrive under extreme conditions)  Prokaryotic (very similar to bacteria)  Single-celled  No nucleus  No membrane bound organelles  Navigate using one or more flagella

4  Volume is about one-thousandth that of eukaryotes  Can be cocci, bacilli, or spirilla in shape

5  Cell wall that lacks peptidoglycan  Phospholipid bilayer  Composed of glycerol-ether lipids, unlike bacteria  One or more flagella

6  Reproduce asexually via binary fission (prokaryotic)  Binary fission: when a single DNA molecule replicates and two identical cells are created from original cell

7  World's most prolific methane producers  Play a big role in digestion in many organisms  Some are found in the gut of humans and assist in digestion  Forms symbiotic relationships with: ▪ Giant tube worms (Riftia pachyptila) ▪ Termites ▪ Herbivores (like cows and horses)  Suspected to play a role in periodontal disease, but not proven

8  Archaebacteria have 4 ways of getting food:  Photoautotrophic- Calvin Cycle (light energy + CO 2 )  Chemoautotrophic- reverse Krebs cycle (inorganic chemicals + CO 2 )  Photoheterotrophic- use light + organic chemicals to make food  Chemoheterotrophic- undergo respiration, either Krebs, TCA, or Citric Acid cycle, and then ETC (organic chemicals + CO 2 )

9  Thermotaxis (movement toward extreme temperatures)  Evolution of thermotaxis due to lack of competition for survival

10 Methanogens (Make METHANE) Thermoacidophiles (Love HEAT & ACID) Halophiles (Love SALT)

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12  Found in oxygen-free environments  Produce methane gas from HO 2 & CO 2  Can live and produce in conditions other bacteria can’t survive in  Most are coccoid or rod-like in shape (few exhibit a plate-like shape) Cluster of coccoid methanogens http://faculty.college-prep.org/~bernie/sciproject/project/Kingdoms/Bacteria3/methanogens.htm

13  Found in the guts of rumen (like cows)  Turn H 2 into CH 4 (methane)  Cows release this methane into the atmosphere  Scientists looking for a way to limit their production of methane http://202.114.65.51/fzjx/wsw/newindex/tuku/MYPER/a2/750.htm

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15  Require salt-rich environments to survive (due to high internal salt concentration)  Like plants, they use sunlight as a source of photosynthetic energy  Get their color and chemical energy from bacteriorhodopsin (a light-sensitive pigment)  Most are rod-shaped (bacilli)

16  Prevalent bacteria in the Great Salt Lake  Can survive in salt concentrations 10x saltier than that of the oceans http://domescobar.blogspot.com/2011/11/oito-criaturas-da-terra-que-poderiam.html

17 http://school.nettrekker.com/goExternal?np=/external.ftl&pp=/error.ftl&evlCode=255279&productName=school&HOMEPAGE=H

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19  Can live and thrive in extremely hot, sulferic, and/or acidic environments  Include:  Thermophiles= thrive in extremely high temperatures  Acidophiles= pH tolerant (function at 1-5 pH)  Sulfolobus= thrive in sulfur-rich environments

20  Live in giant, deep-sea tube worms called Riftia pachyptila  Share a symbiotic relationship with the tube worms  Make food and energy for the tube worms via chemosynthesis http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2007/rossing_jaco/images/tubeworms.jpgGOVwww.nsf.gov.jpg

21  Found in sulfur-rich, acidic environments  Grows optimally at 80⁰C  Capable of living in extremely acidic circumstances (1-5 pH) http://www.sulfosys.com/tl_files/sulfosys/sulfolobus/Zelle.jpg

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23 a) peptidoglycan b) flagellin c) bacteriorhodopsin d) chitin e) phycobilins

24 a) archaea b) viruses c) protists d) fungi e) plants

25  Archaebacteria  http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Refere nce&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=SCIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE %7CCV2644030155&mode=view http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Refere nce&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=SCIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE %7CCV2644030155&mode=view  http://plantphys.info/organismal/lechtml/archaea.shtml http://plantphys.info/organismal/lechtml/archaea.shtml  http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/v1/n1/full/ismej20078a.html http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/v1/n1/full/ismej20078a.html  http://school.nettrekker.com/goExternal?np=/external.ftl&pp=/error.ftl&evlCode=240911&productName=sc hool&HOMEPAGE=H http://school.nettrekker.com/goExternal?np=/external.ftl&pp=/error.ftl&evlCode=240911&productName=sc hool&HOMEPAGE=H  http://www.pnas.org/content/101/16/6176.long http://www.pnas.org/content/101/16/6176.long  Methanogens  http://faculty.college-prep.org/~bernie/sciproject/project/Kingdoms/Bacteria3/methanogens.htm http://faculty.college-prep.org/~bernie/sciproject/project/Kingdoms/Bacteria3/methanogens.htm  http://www.angelfire.com/ks3/lditton/archaebacteria.html http://www.angelfire.com/ks3/lditton/archaebacteria.html  http://www.enotes.com/science/q-and-a/methanogens-halophiles-thermoacidophiles-3-groups-156123 http://www.enotes.com/science/q-and-a/methanogens-halophiles-thermoacidophiles-3-groups-156123  http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arch/2010/945785/ http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arch/2010/945785/  Halophiles  http://waynesword.palomar.edu/plsept98.htm http://waynesword.palomar.edu/plsept98.htm  http://mmbr.asm.org/content/62/2/504.full http://mmbr.asm.org/content/62/2/504.full  Thermoacidophiles  http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=DA- SORT&inPS=true&prodId=GPS&userGroupName=lcpsh&tabID=T003&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESUL T_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm¤tPosition=2&contentSet=GALE%7CA168 664452&&docId=GALE|A168664452&docType=GALE&role=ITOF http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=DA- SORT&inPS=true&prodId=GPS&userGroupName=lcpsh&tabID=T003&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESUL T_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm¤tPosition=2&contentSet=GALE%7CA168 664452&&docId=GALE|A168664452&docType=GALE&role=ITOF


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