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Breast Feeding vs. Bottle Feeding Jason England Laura Wetherington Ashley Strayer Elissa Watson Merril Tydings Kaileen Morgan.

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Presentation on theme: "Breast Feeding vs. Bottle Feeding Jason England Laura Wetherington Ashley Strayer Elissa Watson Merril Tydings Kaileen Morgan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Breast Feeding vs. Bottle Feeding Jason England Laura Wetherington Ashley Strayer Elissa Watson Merril Tydings Kaileen Morgan

2 Pros of Breast Feeding  Contains high levels of Nutrients  Free  Always Perfect Temperature  No Preparation time  Milk is available any time any place  Thought to increase bonding between mother and child.

3 Cons of Breast Feeding  Mother must be available for feeding or to provide pumped milk if she is absent.  Early breast feeding may be uncomfortable.  Certain Medications can interrupt breast feeding.  The Child might want to breast feed in public when the mom doesn’t feel comfortable.  Time Consuming. Breast fed babies are fed on an average every 2-3 hrs initially and minutes per side.  Father can’t breastfeed baby.  Might want breastfeeding after mom decides to stop

4 Pros of Bottle Feeding  Mom is able to go out and have someone else take the bottle.  Bottle fed babies will usually go 3-4 hrs between feedings.  Father can enjoy feeding the baby as well.

5 Cons of Bottle Feeding  Formula ranges from $54 to $198 per month depending on brand.  Bottles and nipples need to be sterilized, but can be done in the dishwasher as well as on top of the stove.  Bottle fed infants tend to be fatter.

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7 NO MORE ON THE SHOULDERS

8  Regardless of the expectations of family, friends, society in general and Hospital personnel, it is the mothers choice to make.

9 How We Produce Milk  Breasts composed of glandular, fibrous, and adipose tissue  Lobes are made up of lobules and lined with cuboidal epithelium  Ducts combine to form lactiferous sinuses which serve as reservoirs for milk collection  Prolactin plays a role in milk production

10 Cultural Art of Breastfeeding  Breastfeeding is a social behavior  Culture is based on worldviews which involve socialization, intergeneration transmission of ideas, internalization of values, consistent patterns of practices and concepts, patterns that are maintained even when maladaptive and feelings of confusion or helplessness when patterns are changed

11  Breastfeeding patterns can be organized around themes of cultural dimensions  Relationships with other people may be approached individualistically or collectivistically  Anthropologist Katherine Dettwyler estimates if culture did not tell us otherwise, weaning would occur between 2.5 to 7 years of age

12  Mainstream American Cultural Views  Leaders within a culture must validate, normalize and respect cultural distress  Leaders must assess a mother’s view of breastfeeding

13 Bottle Feeding and Culture  When breastfeeding knowledge has been lost in societies, the techniques that are appropriate for formula feeding are applied  Bottle feeding involves scheduled, infrequent, time-limited and measured feeding  Western society emphasizes time management and child rearing “experts” have long urged parents to impose schedules on feeding of babies.

14  Formula makers emphasize bottle feeding is more hygienic and superior to breast milk  Infant feeding with breast milk substitutes can be controlled: mothers can measure how much their babies have consumed and the content is known

15 Benefits For Mother If Breastfeeding:  Reduces the risk of breast cancer.  Reduces the risk of uterine and ovarian cancer.  Lessens osteoporosis.  Benefits child spacing.  Promotes emotional health.  Promotes postpartum weight loss.  Costs less to breastfeed.  Maternal-infant interaction and closeness.

16 Disadvantages For Mother If Breastfeeding:  Some mothers feel ashamed or embarrassed.  Pain with breastfeeding.  Leaking milk.  Stress.  Unequal feeding responsibilities/fathers left out.  Diet restriction.  Vaginal dryness associated with breastfeeding.

17 Benefits For Mother If Formula Feeding:  You know exactly how much milk your baby has had.  You can resume your normal life faster.  Can include father, family, friends in the feeding process.  Infant formula milk is not as easily digested as mother's milk  the baby feels satisfied for longer periods of time  more rest for mom between feeds.

18 Benefits For Baby When Breastfed.  Immunologic properties of breast milk.  Increases your baby's intelligence level.  Better pain relief and less stress.  Build stronger bones.  Gets plenty of cholesterol.  Reduces risk of asthma.  Stronger immune systems.  Reduces risk of allergies.

19 Benefits For Baby Breastfed (con’t)  Reduces the risk of becoming obese later in life. - Kids fed mainly on breast milk for the first 6 months of life were 22% less likely to be overweight by age Those who were breast-fed for at least 7 months were 20% less likely to be overweight than those babies who were given breast milk for 3 months. - Research shows how high levels of the protein hormone leptin  abundant in mother's milk which influences a baby's growth and body composition development.

20 Possible Disadvantages For Baby If Breastfed:  HIV transmission.  Inadequate milk supply.  Baby’s inability to suck.

21 Benefits For Baby If Formula Fed:  Iron-fortified infant formulas can decline incidence of anemia in infants.

22 How Long Do You Breast-feed...  The World Health Organization recommends that infants start breastfeeding within one hour of life, are exclusively breastfed for six months, with timely initiation of adequate, safe and properly fed complementary foods while continuing breastfeeding for up to two years of age or beyond.

23 Banking on Breast Milk  Milk banks exist because many babies will not thrive without human milk. Infants with failure to thrive (FTT), formula intolerance, allergies and certain other medical conditions may require real human milk for health and even for survival.  Milk banks exist because many babies will not thrive without human milk. Infants with failure to thrive (FTT), formula intolerance, allergies and certain other medical conditions may require real human milk for health and even for survival.  Ideally, this breastmilk will come from the baby's mother, but this is not always possible. For mothers with adopted children, with insufficient milk glands, past breast surgery or cancer, breastfeeding may not be an option. Among other situations, mothers with premature infants may not be able to get lactation going quickly enough to meet the needs of their fragile babies.  Ideally, this breastmilk will come from the baby's mother, but this is not always possible. For mothers with adopted children, with insufficient milk glands, past breast surgery or cancer, breastfeeding may not be an option. Among other situations, mothers with premature infants may not be able to get lactation going quickly enough to meet the needs of their fragile babies.

24 How do I get Donor Breastmilk?  You need a doctor's prescription to receive donor milk,  Each recipient of donor milk needs to be under medical supervision.  Each recipient of donor milk needs to be under medical supervision.  After everything is set up, you can pick up donor milk at your local milk bank, or have it shipped directly to you. You do not need to live near a milk bank to receive donor milk.  After everything is set up, you can pick up donor milk at your local milk bank, or have it shipped directly to you. You do not need to live near a milk bank to receive donor milk.

25 Is Donor Breast Milk Safe?  All donor mothers are carefully screened.  All donor mothers are carefully screened.  They must be non-smokers, taking no medications, in good health and have breastmilk in excess of their own babies needs.  They must be non-smokers, taking no medications, in good health and have breastmilk in excess of their own babies needs.  Donors must have negative blood tests for Hepatitus B and C, HIV 1 and 2, and HTLV 1 and 2.  Donors must have negative blood tests for Hepatitus B and C, HIV 1 and 2, and HTLV 1 and 2.  Donors must receive physicians consent to donate, and must also provide evidence of immunity to rubella, a negative syphilis test and provide their TB and herpes history.  Donors must receive physicians consent to donate, and must also provide evidence of immunity to rubella, a negative syphilis test and provide their TB and herpes history.  Donors receive detailed instructions in the hygenic collection and handling of milk. You have to be serious about helping others to be a donor!  Once the donor milk arrives at the milk bank, it is pasteurized. The pasteurization process destroys both CMV and HIV viruses while retaining most of the nutritional and allergy protection benefits. After pasteurization the milk is tested for bacteria.  Once the donor milk arrives at the milk bank, it is pasteurized. The pasteurization process destroys both CMV and HIV viruses while retaining most of the nutritional and allergy protection benefits. After pasteurization the milk is tested for bacteria.

26 How much does it cost?  Milk banks charge a fee to help offset the cost of processing donor breastmilk (the fee only covers about 60% of the cost).  Milk banks charge a fee to help offset the cost of processing donor breastmilk (the fee only covers about 60% of the cost).  The Mothers' Milk Bank of Denver, Colorado charges $2.25/ounce plus $0.25/ounce if shipped. Other milk banks charge varying fees.  Donor milk from a milk bank is covered by some medical insurance policies. (If you control which insurance plan your company uses, here's a good question to ask them!) WIC clients are eligible for coverage, and no baby is refused for inability to pay.

27 Reasons to Donate Breast Milk  You have enough breast milk for your baby and extra.  You are a healthy woman whose child is less than 1 year of age and you don't drink alcohol, smoke, use over the counter medications or prescriptions, herbal or illegal drugs or vitamin supplements in excess of 100% of the RDA. A few medications are acceptable, including a multi-vitamin, low-dose progestin, birth control pills, insulin, and thyroid replacement. A lot of chemicals pass through breast milk and premies or sick babies have enough to handle.  Your doctor gives you the go ahead to donate your breast milk.  You want to lose weight for a good cause.  Your baby is premature and you are pumping to keep up your milk supply until your baby comes home from the hospital.  You are pumping your milk anyway for times that you are away from your baby.

28 Contraindications for Breast- feeding...  An infant diagnosed with galactosemia, a rare genetic metabolic disorder  The infant whose mother: Has been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Has been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Is taking antiretroviral medicationsIs taking antiretroviral medications Has untreated, active tuberculosisHas untreated, active tuberculosis Is infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or type IIIs infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or type II Is using or is dependent upon an illicit drugIs using or is dependent upon an illicit drug Is taking prescribed cancer chemotherapy agents, such as antimetabolites that interfere with DNA replication and cell divisionIs taking prescribed cancer chemotherapy agents, such as antimetabolites that interfere with DNA replication and cell division Is undergoing radiation therapies; however, such nuclear medicine therapies require only a temporary interruption in breastfeedingIs undergoing radiation therapies; however, such nuclear medicine therapies require only a temporary interruption in breastfeeding

29 Drugs That are Contraindicated Bromocriptine -Suppresses lactation; may be hazardous to the mother Cocaine- Cocaine intoxication Cyclophosphamide - Possible immune suppression; unknown effect on growth or association with car- cinogenesis; neutropenia Cyclosporine - Possible immune suppression; unknown effect on growth or association with car- cinogenesis Doxorubicin* -Possible immune suppression; unknown effect on growth or association with car- cinogenesis Ergotamine -Vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions (doses used in migraine medications) Methotrexate -Possible immune suppression; unknown effect on growth or association with car- cinogenesis; neutropenia Lithium - One-third to one-half therapeutic blood concentration in infants Phencyclidine (PCP) -Potent hallucinogen Phenindione - Anticoagulant: increased prothrombin and partial thromboplastin time in one infant; not used in United States Source: Copyright American Academy of Pediatrics. *Drug is concentrated in human milk.

30 INTERVENTIONS HOW TO BOTTLE FEED  Formula feeding from the start?  Supplementing breast milk with formula?  Switching from breast milk to formula? CONSULT YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER!!!

31 WHICH FORMULA IS BEST? WHAT’S YOUR BUDGET?  Upwards of $200 a case  Powders that require mixing with water are cheapest but the least nutritious  Concentrates  Ready-to-use  Community resources  Coupons  Free Samples

32 WHICH FORMULA IS BEST? WHAT DOES YOUR BABY TOLERATE?  Cow’s-milk-based products  Soy-based products  Hypoallergenic formulas  Specialized  DHA/ARA supplements

33 WHICH BOTTLE?  BPA-Free  Glass  Plastic  Reusable  Disposable  Liners

34 WHICH NIPPLE?  Silicone  Latex  Orthodontic  Rounded  Wide Based  Flat Topped  Flow Rates  Age Appropriate

35 AFTER ALL OF THAT……… TIME TO FEED!!!!  Proper positioning  Eye contact  Attachment  Burping  No bottle to bed  Sterilization

36 INTERVENTION HOW TO BREAST FEED  “Breast is Best!”  Comes naturally to mom and baby  Rooting Reflex  Cues baby is hungry

37 LATCHING  Baby’s mouth is open wide and tongue is down  Support breast by positioning thumb on top, fingers on the bottom  Glide nipple from middle of baby’s bottom lip down to chin to prompt mouth opening

38 LATCHING  When mouth is open, bring baby to the breast, not breast to the baby  Baby should take in as much of the areola as possible-”fish lips”  Nose is almost touching  See and hear baby swallowing  Feels like a tug  Sucking will increase as flow increases

39 POSITIONS  Cradle Hold  Football Hold  Cross-Cradle Hold  Side Lying Position  Will depend on mom and baby preference!

40 MORE COMFORT MEASURES  Breastfeeding goodie bag  Footstools  Pillows  Partners

41 PROBLEMS?  Prolonged pain  Baby constantly asleep at breast  Baby doesn’t seem satisfied when feedings over 

42  Patient Education  Benefits and risks of breastfeeding or bottle feeding.  Positioning and latching.  Early, active, late signs of hungry.  What is the purpose of a lactation consultant?


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