Presentation on theme: "Breastfeeding Support and Promotion Joan Younger Meek, MD, FAAP AAP Section on Breastfeeding The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports breastfeeding."— Presentation transcript:
1Breastfeeding Support and Promotion Joan Younger Meek, MD, FAAP AAP Section on Breastfeeding The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports breastfeeding for virtually all mothers and infants.This presentation is designed to explain Why breastfeeding is important for babies and their mothers and families and results in optimal health outcomes How breastfeeding can be best be initiated and supported The role every health care professional can play in promoting breastfeeding in hospitals, clinics, offices, and the communityThe author would like to acknowledge members of the Section on Breastfeeding Executive Committee and Rachel Meek for their review of the material in this slide set. The slides may be used for educational purposes with credit to the original source.1
2AAP Policy StatementRole of Pediatricians and Other Health Care Professionals in Protecting, Promoting, and Supporting BreastfeedingStrong position of support based on published evidence of improved outcomesKnowledgeable and skilled in physiology and management of breastfeedingCollaboration with the obstetric communityAge-appropriate breastfeeding education in the office and in the school systemBecause of the well-documented advantages of breastfeeding, the health care professional can take a strong position of advocacy.Pediatric practitioners must be knowledgeable about basic breastfeeding management and should work closely with obstetric professionals to encourage optimal breastfeeding education and practices in their communities. Breastfeeding education should be incorporated into the clinical office setting and the school curriculum so that children learn from an early age that breastfeeding is the normal method of infant feeding.
4AAP Policy StatementRole of Pediatricians and Other Health Care Professionals in Protecting, Promoting, and Supporting BreastfeedingPromote community resourcesCommunicate with lactation support personnelEncourage third-party payer coverage for breastfeeding services and suppliesEncourage child care providers to support breastfeeding and feeding expressed breast milkSupport breastfeeding in the workplaceAdvocate for supportive legislationHealth care practitioners for infants and children should promote the establishment of breastfeeding support groups in the community and work closely with lactation support personnel in the hospital and community settings.Physicians need to advocate for third-party and government payers to cover lactation consultations or breast pump rental when indicated because breastfeeding decreases health care costs.In addition, physicians can work with employers to assist employed mothers in continuing to breastfeed after returning to work.
6Opportunities to Promote Breastfeeding PreconceptionEducation in school systemsPediatric and adolescent visitsGynecologic visitsBreast examinationsHealth care professionals should take advantage of every opportunity to educate patients about breastfeeding and that the breasts are designed to produce milk to nourish the young. Encourage parents to talk with young children about the importance of breastfeeding and good nutrition.This education should occur in the school setting, during routine pediatric and adolescent visits, and during routine gynecologic evaluations of young women.During the breast examination, the health care professional can discuss the role of the breast in milk production and provide reassurance that the young woman appears to have normal anatomy and should be able to breastfeed.
7Opportunities to Promote Breastfeeding Early pregnancyPerform breast examination.Discuss normal anatomy and physiology.Assess previous surgeries, scars, biopsies.Talk about previous breastfeeding experiences.Provide positive support for benefits of breastfeeding.The first prenatal visit should include a thorough breast examination and a history of previous breast surgery, as well as previous breastfeeding experiences. The breast examination should include evaluation of nipple configuration, especially inverted nipples, and presence of breast scars.Benefits of breastfeeding should be discussed, with appropriate noncommercial literature provided and referral to breastfeeding classes in the community or at the delivery hospital.
8Opportunities to Promote Breastfeeding Prenatal visitsProvide appropriate literature, resources.Refer for prenatal and breastfeeding classes.Refer to pediatrician for prenatal visit.Avoid formula coupons or products.During the pregnancy, all mothers should be assisted in making an informed decision about infant feeding.Mothers should be referred for breastfeeding classes to obtain additional education.Mothers with previous breastfeeding problems, anatomic abnormalities, or history of breast surgery may benefit from consultation with a lactation specialist prior to delivery.Mothers should not be given free formula or coupons to obtain formula during pregnancy. Physicians and their office staff should avoid giving patient names and addresses to formula manufacturers or signing pregnant patients up for the formula company clubs.
9Opportunities to Promote Breastfeeding Peripartum/postpartumProvide supportive delivery environment.Facilitate early skin-to-skin contact.Place on mother’s abdomen and dry.Have trained professionals to assist mother if needed.Initiate breastfeeding within the first hour after delivery.The majority of mothers have made the decision about how they will feed their infants prior to delivery. But some mothers are undecided. A supportive delivery environment with avoidance of unnecessary medications and early skin-to-skin contact will help to encourage successful initiation of breastfeeding.The baby should be placed on the mother’s abdomen and thoroughly dried while being assessed for stability of the respiratory and cardiac systems. Newborns who have not been sedated by maternal medications during delivery are active and alert during this period. They are capable of locating and self-attaching to the nipple and areola for the first feeding of colostrum.Optimally, breastfeeding should be initiated within the first hour after delivery. Delivery nurses should be knowledgeable about breastfeeding and assist mothers in offering the breast or positioning the baby, especially if the mother has had a difficult or cesarean delivery.This early skin-to-skin contact helps to maintain the baby’s temperature; stabilize the heart rate, respirations, and oxygenation of the baby; and colonize the baby’s skin with maternal skin flora, helping to protect against pathogenic bacteria. The swallowed colostrum colonizes the newborn’s gastrointestinal (GI) tract with beneficial flora, produces an optimal pH in the newborn’s intestine, and protects the lining of the GI tract with secretory IgA. Vitamin K administration, eye prophylaxis, and bathing can be delayed until after this critical first feeding.
10Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding Hospital Policies to Support BreastfeedingHave a written breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to all health care staff.2. Train all health care staff in skills necessary to implement this policy.3. Inform all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breastfeeding.Help mothers initiate breastfeeding within the first hour of birth.Show mothers how to breastfeed and maintain lactation, even if separated from infants.Hospital policies have been shown to affect the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding.The “Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding” of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, originally developed and supported by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization, Wellstart International, and many other organizations, provide a summary of those policies. The Ten Steps are evidence-based practices which have been shown to increase rates of breastfeeding, and they have been endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics
11Hospital Policies to Support Breastfeeding Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Ten Steps to Successful BreastfeedingHospital Policies to Support BreastfeedingGive newborn infants nothing other than breast milk, unless medically indicated.Practice rooming-in 24 hours a day.Encourage breastfeeding on demand.Give no artificial nipples or pacifiers.Foster the establishment of breastfeeding support groups.Hospital policies that support breastfeeding have been demonstrated to have a significant effect on breastfeeding initiation and continuation rates.Baby Friendly USA has developed a pathway for becoming certified as a Baby Friendly Hospital in the US. The National Initiative for Children’s Health Quality is providing technical support for hospital who wish to become certified through the Best Fed Beginnings:
12Percentage of US hospitals with Recommended Policies and Practices to Support Breastfeeding, 2007 and 2009The CDC provides feedback for maternity hospitals on their compliance with evidence-based maternity care policies. This survey, collected by self-assessment, is conducted every other year. The 2011 survey will be released in The previous studies have indicated that many hospitals do not have the policies in place to provide optimal breastfeeding support.SOURCE: CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)
13Percentage of hospitals by number of recommended policies and practices to support breastfeeding in 2009
14Less than 5% of all babies are currently born in a Baby Friendly designated facility.
15The Joint Commission Perinatal Care Core Measure on Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding The Joint commission defines exclusive breast milk feeding as:“a newborn receiving only breast milk and no other liquids or solids except for drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, minerals, or medicines”includes expressed mother’s milk as well as donor human milk, both of which may be fed to the infant by means other than suckling at the breastThe Joint Commission has included exclusive breast milk feeding in the hospital as a perinatal core measure. The Joint Commission launched a public service campaign, one of their highly successful “Speak Up” Campaigns, aimed at consumers to educate consumers about the maternity care policies they should expect for optimal breastfeeding support.Hospitals should be measuring their rates of breastfeeding as part of their ongoing maternity care quality improvement processes. Guidance on breastfeeding data collection is available from the United States Breastfeeding Committee:
16The Joint Commission assesses how many non-NICU babies without a contraindication to breastfeeding were exclusively breast milk fed.Exceptions:Discharged from the NICUICD-9 code for GalactosemiaICD-9 code for Parenteral infusionExperienced DeathLength of stay > 120 daysEnrolled in clinical trialsDocumented Reasons for not exclusively feeding breast milk (See next slide)
17The only acceptable maternal reasons for which “breast milk should be avoided” are as follows: HIV infectionHuman t-Lymphotrophic virus type I or IISubstance abuse and/or alcohol abuseActive, untreated tuberculosisTaking certain meds: chemotherapy, radioactive isotopes, antimetabolites, antiretroviral meds, and other medications where the risk of morbidity outweighs the benefits of breast milk feeding.Undergoing radiation therapyActive, untreated varicellaActive herpes simplex virus breast lesions** In some of these cases the infant can and should be exclusively breast milk fedHospitals should examine how well they are complying The Joint Commission Perinatal Care Core Measure on Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding.
19Community Support Knowledgeable physicians Lactation specialists Hospital support groupsWIC programsLa Leche League InternationalAll health care professionals should become familiar with the sources of support in the local community and refer mothers and families to them as appropriate. Many communities have physicians with special expertise or interest in breastfeeding support who can serve as resources or assist in clinical problem solving when breastfeeding problems arise. Develop partnerships or coalitions with providers of pediatric and obstetric care to ensure complementary breastfeeding policies. The local Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) also can be a valuable source of breastfeeding education and support, as can La Leche League International.
20Breastfeeding can be lifesaving for infants during times of disaster, and pediatricians can play a major role in advocating for legislation, community support, and also in increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in their local communities. The AAP developed this guidance on “Infant Nutrition During a Disaster.”
21This algorithm included in the Infant Feeding During Disaster guideline highlights the feeding decisions available. Clearly, for the mothers already breastfeeding during the time of a natural disaster, infant outcomes are best.
23Summary Breastfeeding is the preferred feeding for almost all infants. Mothers should be informed of the benefits of breastfeeding.Supplementation is rarely indicated and interferes with successful lactation.Breastfeeding should be actively supported and promoted in the medical community and society.Women should feel comfortable continuing to breastfeed for as long as desired.Breastfeeding is preferred feeding for almost all infants.Supplementation is rarely indicated and interferes with successful lactation.Breastfeeding should be actively supported and promoted in the medical community and society.Women should feel comfortable continuing to breastfeed for as long as desired.Breastfeeding is a gift that only a mother can give to her infant. Many mothers who have been successful at breastfeeding report that breastfeeding was an extremely rewarding and meaningful experience to them. Many mothers who did not breastfeed express feelings of regret and even grief that they did not receive the education or support to be successful in meeting their breastfeeding goals.Pediatricians and other health care professionals need to provide education about breastfeeding in their offices and community, empower women to make an informed decision about feeding their infants, and support women during the course of breastfeeding, so that all women desiring to breastfeed can meet their breastfeeding goals and they and their babies can reap the benefits.