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Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 1 EUROPE WHAT UNITES US?  The Celts  The Greeks  The Romans  Christianity  Charlemagne  Napoleon.

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Presentation on theme: "Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 1 EUROPE WHAT UNITES US?  The Celts  The Greeks  The Romans  Christianity  Charlemagne  Napoleon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 1 EUROPE WHAT UNITES US?  The Celts  The Greeks  The Romans  Christianity  Charlemagne  Napoleon

2 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 2 The Celts – 500 BC to 43 AD A Celtish Chieftain Who were The Celts?

3 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 3 The Celts – 500 BC to 43 AD Modern Celts, reliving the past

4 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 4 in 500 BC, Celts were dominant European power they had expanded from southern Germany not a nation, more a conferation of tribes with shared culture influence stretched from Spain to Britain, Germany and Northern Italy and as far as Anatolia they were tribal farmers gathered around their Chiefs’strongholds they were bound together by the Druids; learned priests, lawmakers, bards & sagesDruids Celts also had artists, musicians & metalworkers they traded with Rome, Greece & other countries, but were not much influenced by them conquered by Romans, then Anglo-Saxons, they left lasting culture The Celts – 500 BC to 43 AD Celtish History and Influence

5 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 5 The Celts – 400 to 800 BC

6 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 6 each Celt was a freeman with individual rights Druidic justice was famous and tribal bonds strong chiefs were elected by tribespeople, and high-kings by the Chiefs both could be deposed if not doing well they were fierce warriors; and used iron for weapons and tools in 390 BC they sacked Rome & in 280 BC they raided Greece & Anatolia they also fought amongst themselves; the Romans exploited this when invading Gaul (France) & Britain the British leader (Caractarus) was betrayed by other Celts disunited, the Celts lost their independence in 43 to 80 AD they later accepted Roman rule and fought for them against Germanic barbarians The Celts – 500 BC to 43 AD (The Celts & their languages - the Breton Language)The Celts & their languages the Breton Language

7 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 7 The Celts Today:  Celtic culture is well documented and preserved  millions of people on different continents identify with the culture  something of a Celtic Renaissance is taking place What is a "Celt"? Someone who …  … claims Celtic ancestry  … identifies with Celtic culture  … wishes to think of themselves as being Celtic, or even as a Celt

8 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 8 The Celts Today - Where are they?  Irish Gaelic, a Celtic language, is one of the official languages of Ireland  Gaelic is taught in schools  there are "Gaeltacht" areas, as in parts of Co. Donegal, where the use of Gaelic by native speakers is officially encouraged by the government  according to the World Book Encyclopedia, one in five people in Ireland can speak Gaelic (about 700,000 people), and one in 20 speak Gaelic every day (about 100,000 people)  the World Almanac says that the majority ethnic group of Ireland is "Celtic," and that there is an English minority  economic regeneration has helped the renaissance of the culture  Ireland is claimed by some to be the world's only Celtic nation state Ireland

9 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 9  millions of Americans claim Irish descent  Irish immigrants have always valued their Gaelic roots  presidents often travel to Ireland to trace their roots, e.g. Kennedy  St. Patrick's Day has become a general celebration  Irish pubs are very fashionable  there is even a professional basketball team named after the Celts  till recently (9/11), many Irish Americans supported the IRA The USA The Celts Today - Where are they?

10 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 10 Wales The Celts Today - Where are they?  great resurgence of Welsh nationalism in recent years  revived interest in Welsh language; taught in schools; popular television station broadcasts all its programs in Celtic Welsh; Welsh cartoon series and animated programs for children  Welsh flag shown prominently on many occasions  government obliged to use bilingual road signs  some towns renamed with old Celtish version: Dyfed, Clwyd, Gynedd, and Powys  cultural festivals such as the annual Eistedfod extremely popular

11 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 11 Scotland The Celts Today - Where are they?  over 80,000 people still speak Scottish Gaelic, mostly in highlands and islands  other Celtic elements include references to the clans, bagpipe music, interest in tartan plaids and kilts, Scottish field games, and Scottish step-dancing  strong nationalist element in Scotland; 1999, creation of Scottish Parliament Brittany  pan-Celtic festival held annually in Lorient  several times a year there are celebrations called Pardons which preserve Celtic Breton culture  many links between Brittany & Ireland  many Irish pubs with regular live Celtic music

12 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 12 A United Europe? A Common Heritage? The Legacy of Antiquity

13 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 13 independent ‘city-states’ (‘polis’) grew up surrounding mountains provided protection they built encircling walls and a fort (‘acropolis’) was built on a high place inside Athens & Sparta were the two most important of manyAthensSparta each had own customs, laws & forms of government they tended to expand towards Black Sea & Africa they were very competitive with each other they fought hard for freedom, especially against the PersiansPersians they were traders, sailors & adventurers also philosophers: influenced many faraway cultures built philosophies based on observation, reason & discussion Classical Greece – 600 to 337 BC LINK 2LINK

14 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 14 they triumphed at Battles of Marathon & Salamis around 480BCMarathon from 431 they spent over 25 years fighting each other in the Peloponnesian War Sparta feared the growth of Athenian power, so the city-states never became a united country city-states united to fight off the Persiansthe Persians disunity resulted in invasion by Philip II of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great They gave us language, architecture, philosophy and democracy ….. Alexander the Greatlanguagearchitecture philosophydemocracy A biography of Alexander the Great Classical Greece – 600 to 337 BC More photos of Ancient Greece The Elgin Marbles The Parthenon one / two / threeonetwothree (the importance of the Battle of Marathon)

15 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 15 sons of freemen went to school girls were taught weaving & household skills by mothers at 6 or 7, boys learned reading, writing, music, dancing & athletics they wrote on wax tablets, using a stick called a ‘stylus’

16 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 16 a new Greek colony is established Inside the city wall will be a marketplace, temples, law courts, houses, workshops and council chambers

17 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 17 A United Europe? A Common Heritage? Rome - Republic & Empire

18 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 18 legend has it that Rome was founded by local tribespeople who camped on Rome's 7 hills the people were Sabines and Latins; Romulus was their first King they were influenced by their neighbours the Etruscans and traders from Greece & Carthage the Etruscans, from Etruria, lived in city-states emerging around 800 BC they were farmers, metalworkers, seafarers & traders, and liked music, games & gambling they were greatly influenced by the Greeks and worshipped Greek Gods The Founding of Rome to 509 BC LINK BBC

19 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 19 early Rome was ruled by Kings, who formed armies to defend Rome the kings had disputes with the patricians, the leading families the patricians were more representative of a changing, more urbanised Rome they eventually overthrew the monarchy in 509 BC, leading to the Republic this was the first republic in the world The Founding of Rome to 509 BC LINK

20 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 20 Rome was run in the 5th century BC by ‘patricians’ (lords, the ruling class) there was a struggle between Patricians and Plebians (ordinary people) this led to the writing of a legal code and the Roman Republic Rome embarked on wars that led to control of all the Italian peninsular Rome clashed with Carthage over trade in the Mediterranean, leading to Punic Wars lasting 60 years Rome established new cities, organisation and prosperity, giving conquered peoples Roman citizenship if they cooperated by 44 BC they ruled France, Spain, Europe south of the Danube, Anatolia &Northern Africa The Roman Republic – 509 to 27 BC LINK

21 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 21 The Roman Empire – built on military power the sad story of Hannibal & Carthage onetwo

22 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 22

23 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 23 in 100 BC, friction arose between patricians and plebians again power struggles between generals led to civil war in 44 BC, Julius Caesar became Emperor for Life, but alarmed Republicans assassinated him, and the Republic collapsedJulius Caesar Romans chose dictatorship to chaos, and Octavian gradually took control under him, trade extended as far as East Africa, India & China the Empire expanded and built roads, towns and cities Emperors relied more on the army than on the people most Emperors chose their successors; some were deposed by soldiers from 100 AD, Rome was ruled by strong Emperors: Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius & Marcus Aurelius by 117 AD, the Empire had grown too large; soldiers could no longer be paid with booty, slaves and land taken from those conquered the last conquests were in Britain, Syria, Palestine & Egypt; most conquered people adapted to Roman life The Roman Empire – 27 BC to 475 AD LINK Pompeii

24 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 24 The Romans great builders of antiquity great builders of antiquity The Romans were master bridge- builders, not only for transport of people and goods, but also for water. They built magnificent aquaducts all over their Empire, and some are still in use today. Hadrian's Wall between Scotland & England

25 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 25 The Romans great builders of antiquity famous monuments famous monuments fast communications, meaning good roads, were one of the Romans’ greatest assets in the conquest and control of their Empire most of their roads were straight; many of the routes they followed can still be seen to this day

26 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 26 The Roman Empire, 2 nd century AD

27 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 27 The Roman Empire – built on military power

28 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 28 The Roman Empire – built on military power

29 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 29 The Roman Empire – built on military power The Battle of Alesia - 52 BC

30 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 30 The Roman Empire at its height under Trajan, 337 ad The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

31 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 31 Latin brought to Italy about 1000 BC by Indo-European immigrants from Northern Europe. As people in Latium developed into organized community, city of Rome in, according to legend, 753 BC Latin quickly spread over much of Italy, in direct correlation to Roman conquests with foundation of Roman Empire, large portion of western world came to speak various forms of Latin or combine it with own tongues "classical" Latin developed in city of Rome and environs; a spoken vernacular form of Latin was carried by Roman army to all Roman provinces Latin thus superceded pre-Roman dialects of Italy, Gaul and Spain some expressions of the original languages remained and, once mixed with the spoken Latin, gave birth to new languages known as the Romance languages only the deeply rooted Greek language resisted Latin domination and continued to be spoken in its original form The Importance of Latin The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

32 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 32  Latin also survived fall of Roman Empire; as centuries passed it continued to be an international language of educated and social elite, accompanying the modified tongues of the common people  Latin often an international Lingua Franca between different peoples; use among educated people survived for centuries  the sole language of the Catholic Church was Latin  all scholarly, historical, or scientific work was written in it up to end of Renaissance  when Middle Ages ended, the west experienced a cultural Renaissance; interest in Antiquity & classical Latin as a means of artistic and literary expression grew  during and after this period of rebirth, forms of Latin even transplanted to the Western Hemisphere; today, the people of Mexico, Central America, and South America are called Latins or latinos The Importance of Latin The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

33 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 33 Latin is the bedrock of Western European languages the Romance languages of Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, and Romania developed from a hybrid version of spoken Latin and native tongues each also influenced in turn by other tongues, such as Slavic, Norse and many Germanic dialects of these modern languages, Romanian, not Italian, remains the closest living language to the original without Latin, very few of today's European languages would be possible or recognizable in their current forms The Importance of Latin The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

34 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 34 The Latin Language amoI love amas you love amathe/she loves amamuswe love amatisyou love amantthey love AMARE = to love insulanominative (subject) insula you love insulamaccusative (object) insulaegenitive insulaedative insulaablative INSULA = an island an amateur photographer (= lover of photography) an amorous look … I’m not enamoured of … an example of insular thought I live on a peninsular. (pen = almost) The machine is poorly insulated. The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

35 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 35 The Latin Language – noun inflections insulanominative (subject) Insula bella est. insula you love O insula, te amo insulamaccusative (object)Insulam amo insulaegenitiveInsulae dicit. insulaedativeHistoriam insulae amo insulaablativePuer insulae est. INSULA = an island The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome Some latin phrases

36 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 36 Roman Architecture Roman monuments can be found in most parts of Western Europe. They are very familiar to all Europeans, and a permanent reminder of the Roman Legacy The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome The Colosseum, Rome

37 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 37 Roman Architecture The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome The Colosseum, Rome

38 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 38 Roman Architecture The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome Roman baths at Bath, England

39 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 39 Aqueduct, Segovia, Spain The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

40 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 40 The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome Le Pont du Gard, Nîmes, France

41 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 41 A Christian Europe?

42 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 42 Christianity fundamental to the history of EuropeChristianity around time JC was born, many different sects in Roman Empire by 400 AD, Christianity dominant Jews had long believed a Saviour would be born to lead them Jesus in Nazareth under Roman rule little known of early life, but in 27 AD he began preaching told many parables and performed miracles of healing the Jewish authorities accused him of blasphemy the Romans under Pontius Pilate tried and crucified himPontius Pilate believed to have come to life again after three days (Resurrection) Christianity

43 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 43 Jesus Christ - Preacher

44 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 44 "The Last Supper""The Last Supper" - by Leonardo da Vinciby Leonardo da Vinci

45 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 45 The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ by the Romans

46 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 46 Christians were persecuted for their faith many died cruelly in the Romans' amphitheatres the Emperor Constantine recognized Christianity in 313 AD said to have adopted the Christian symbol by painting it on his soldiers' shields before a successful battle thanks to him, Christianity became deeply rooted by the 5th century

47 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 47 The Carolingian Empire under Charlemagne 814

48 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 48 Napoléon Bonaparte David, Jacques-Louis

49 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 49 Napoléon's Empire 1812

50 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 50 Napoléon Bonaparte  born in Corsica; joined French army; general by age 26; captured North Italy 1797  invaded Egypt, but Nelson destroyed fleet ain 1798  1799: returned France & seized control, appointing three Consuls to run France  1804 crowned himself Emperor  many reforms: europe-wide laws, better educational system, reorganized government, created national bank  believed in Meritocracy; founded "Légion d'Honneur"  had vast conscript army - up to 750,000 men  lost Battle of Trafalgar against Nelson in 1805  invaded Spain 1808; expelled by Duke of Wellington of Britain  brilliant general, but disaster in Russia in 1812: only 10,000 men survived out of 500,000  defeated at Leipzig by Allies led by Prussians under von Blücher  France invaded 1814,; Napoléon went into exile  escaped, landed in France for the the "100 days"  defeated at Waterloo by Wellington  exiled to Saint Helena, died in 1821

51 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 51 Napoléon Bonaparte - his legacy  Code Napoléon was the French civil code, established March 21, 1804  based on Roman law - the first legal code to be established in a country with a civil legal system  followed Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis in dividing civil law into: - personal status; - property; - acquisition of property  other countries soon copied idea, and developed their own codes, of which Swiss,  German and Austrian codes were most influential  civil law systems of the countries of modern Europe, with the exception of the United Kingdom, Ireland, Russia, and the Scandinavian countries have, to different degrees, been influenced by the Napoleonic Code - Code has thus been the most permanent legacy of Napoleon  intention behind Napoleonic Code was to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution; before the Code, France did not have a single set of laws - The vestiges of feudalism were abolished, and the many different legal systems used in different parts of France were replaced by a single legal code  Code dealt only with civil law issues; other codes were also published dealing with criminal law and commercial law

52 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA 52 The Arc de Triomphe, Paris Info

53 Thursday, 01 September 2005 Chris SNUGGS, ISUGA Anguilla 2. Antigua and Barbuda 3. Australia 4. Bahamas 5. Bangladesh 6. Barbados 7. Bermuda 8. Bhutan 9. Botswana 10. Brunei 1. Afghanistan 2. Albania 3. Algeria 4. American Samoa 5. Andorra 6. Angola 7. Argentina 8. Armenia 9. Aruba 10. Austria Napoléon Bonaparte - his legacy  dragged much of Europe into modern world  His reforms marked definitive end of feudal era  created concept of professional army  plunged Europe into war for 15 years  gave France an authentic and enduring hero AND???


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