Presentation on theme: "Europe, Migration and refugees European Summer School: Europe in the 21 st century: Power, leadership and crisis. 16-18 January 2013 Assoc. Prof. Bruno."— Presentation transcript:
Europe, Migration and refugees European Summer School: Europe in the 21 st century: Power, leadership and crisis. 16-18 January 2013 Assoc. Prof. Bruno Mascitelli Swinburne University of Technology (Contemporary European Studies Association of Australia) Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 1
Europe, migration and refugees Summary of the presentation Migration an international phenomenon. Europe at the forefront of the movement of people. Theoretical approaches – help or hinder? Migration in the EU is both intra-EU activity as well as from extra EU sources. Migration has become a key feature of the European body politic especially in times of economic crisis. There is migration and migration – different forms? Migration – a human debate (xenophobic responses and political backlash). EU movement of people, asylum seekers and refugees. Migration Policy and Integration – Is there a gap? The case of Roma/Gypsies and Muslims and others. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 2
Europe, migration and refugees Some theoretical considerations Castles and Miller (2009) emphasise the complexity and interconnectedness of migration and socio-political conditions - migration is neither a new nor unusual phenomenon. Despite improvements in data provision some types of migration are difficult to measure (Salt & Clarke 2005). Two economic migration theories, Currle (2006) and Glorius and Mattuschewski (2009), also point out that migrations are shaped by historical, technological and societal developments. Migration has been the object of study in many disciplines with their own unique focus and specific approach to enquiry. This variety for Massey et al. (2005) call for a “comprehensive theory” to international migration (Massey et al. 2005, p. 17), and Favell (2008) ask for an interdisciplinary approach. A more commonly held view is that migration is too diverse and multi-faceted for a single theory (Arango 2000), and that such a theory would be so abstract as to be unhelpful (Castles 2012). Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 3
Europe, migration and refugees Some data on Migration International migration is the major factor contributing to population change in regions of the world and Europe in particular. In 2005, the United Nations estimated that worldwide there were about 191 million persons residing outside their country of birth, or nearly 3% of the world’s population (UNFPA 2006). Excluding the former Soviet Union, Europe hosts about 19% of all foreign-born persons in the world. This is striking considering that the population of this area only represents 7–8% of the world’s population total. Since 1989, net immigration has contributed to at least 50% of the European Union’s annual population growth and, in 2002, it represented 85% compared to 27% in 1980 (Eurostat 2004). Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 4
Europe, migration and refugees Some observations on Migration and in and to Europe Europe has always been affected by migration. Demographic growth, climatic change, trade, warfare, conquest and formation of nations, states and empires have all initiated population movement. However, since World War II, the levels and sources of migrants have changed considerably (Castles and Miller 2003). Foreign born populations are growing rapidly as a result of very low or negative levels of natural increase among native-born populations and by increasing levels of immigration. The diversity of foreign-born populations is also expanding as European countries are becoming increasingly more connected with the world. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 5
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Europe, migration and refugees Migration before the European Union Until early 1970s, European countries saw much emigration from Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the UK. Large numbers from these nations migrated to the Americas, Australia and other European countries (notably France, Switzerland, Germany and Belgium). With rising living standards in these countries, trend reversed and these countries have now become attractive for immigration (most notably from Morocco, Somalia, Egypt to Italy and Greece; from Morocco, Algeria and Latin America to Spain and Portugal; and from Ireland, India, Pakistan, Germany, the United States, Bangladesh, and Jamaica to the UK). Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 7
Europe, Migration and refugees Migration patterns throughout Europe Migrant populations of recent portray changing scale and nature of migration over the past decades. Calefato (1994), says 1980s immigration flows is expression of growing of global inequalities between poor and rich countries. National rules and practices differ and change over time and numbers and different countries and for different reasons. Much labor migration intended to be short term in cases extended to long term migration. German Gastarbeiter migrant labor scheme in Germany in the 1960s saw migrants from Turkey, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 8
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Europe, Migration and refugees Recent migration patterns into Europe (21 st century) 2000s saw large waves of migration within and from without. Peak at the end of 2007 – beginning of the GFC. In 2008 - 3.8 million migrated to/between the EU 27 MS. In 2008 - EU 27 MS received 2 mill migrants of other EU nationalities - Romanians, Poles Bulgarians, Germans and Italians (excluding nationals). 1.8 million immigrants from Non-EU source countries (Morocco mostly to Spain and Italy) (Chinese to Spain 27%) (most Indians to the UK). Introduction skilled migration leading to EU Blue Card Scheme. Student migration – much permanence to this scheme also. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 10
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Europe, migration and refugees Migration before the European Union 1985 Schengen Agreement, allowed free movement within EU. EU member states citizens have the right to live and work within the EU due to EU citizenship but citizens of non-EU or non- EEA states do not have those rights. Nevertheless, all holders of valid residence permits of a Schengen State have the unrestricted right to travel within the Schengen Area for tourist purposes only, and for up to three months. Seen by some as encouragement to work illegally within the Schengen zone. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 13
Europe, migration and refugees Migration in the European Union Large numbers of immigrants in W. European states have come from former eastern bloc states in the 1990s, especially in Spain, Greece, Germany, Italy, Portugal and the United Kingdom. There are frequently specific migration patterns, with geography, language and culture playing a role. For example, large numbers of Poles went to UK and Ireland while Romanians and Bulgarians went to Spain and Italy. With previous two enlargements of the EU, many EU states restricted free movement by nationals of the acceding countries, UK did not – The 2004 enlargement of the EU thus receiving Polish, Latvian and other citizens of the new EU states. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 14
Europe, migration and refugees Migration in the European Union Many of these Polish immigrants to UK have since returned to Poland, after the serious economic crisis in the UK. Free movement of EU nationals is now an important aspect of migration within the EU of 27. Serious political tensions between Italy and Romania, since Italy has expressed the intention of restricting free movement of EU nationals (contrary to Treaty obligations). Another trend that of Northern Europeans moving toward Southern Europe. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 15
Europe, migration and refugees Migration in the European Union Citizens from the European Union make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain, coming chiefly from the United Kingdom and Germany, but also from Italy, France, Portugal, the Netherlands, Belgium, etc. British authorities estimate that the population of UK citizens living in Spain is much larger than Spanish official figures suggest, establishing them at about 1,000,000, with 800,000 being permanent residents. According to one source, Spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering to move from their own country and seek jobs elsewhere in the EU! (FT 2007). Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 16
Europe, migration and refugees Immigration from outside of Europe since the 1980s In May 2009 the European Commission adopted the EU Blue Card. This permit will make it easy for skilled third-country workers to live and work in any of the participating EU member states. Legislation is now in place on a European level, gradually member states will start accepting applicants to this program. Pre-registration started in January 2010. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 17
Europe, migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 18 Britain facing new eastern Europe immigration surge Britain is facing a new wave of Eastern European immigration which will put British workers’ jobs at risk, experts have warned. The Telegraph, 30 December 2012
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 19 Migration policy and integration A policy gap on immigration according to the OECD - Immigration vs integration policies. Especially in some EU states local services is covering the policy gap (Italy, Greece, Spain). Labour skills becoming a major driver in approaches to all aspects of migration in Europe (skills as important as capital). Labour skills driver will be one of the rectifies of poor integration of migration in EU. The Global/Eurozone Crisis has impacted on the profile of migration and the recipient countries within the EU. High levels of unemployment in many EU states will drive away migration to the more economically well off states.
Europe, Migration and refugees The contemporary approach to migration in EU Last decade many aspects of migration become high profile. Many member states grappling (struggling) with migration. Temporary cessation of Schengen unilaterally by some member states to “deal with criminality” has demonstrated the fragility of an EU approach. Deportations of Roma/Gypsies (holders of EU passports) from France, Italy and Germany revealing in its intentions. The emotive nature of mobility within and from without EU has become front page news. Many EU member states responding to their national electorates and sidestepping EU commitments. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 20
Europe, Migration and refugees Immigration to EU - Rise of Right wing anti-immigration parties European parties of the far right are growing in the financial crisis. In Greece it is the Golden Dawn, in Finland it is the True Finns and in Hungary it is Jobbik. Espana 2000 is Spain's answer to the Front Nationale and is seeing its membership grow by about 40 new members a week. Migrants become the scapegoat! (From the BBC 19 December 2012) Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 21
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 22 The changing muslim presence in Europe (2011) Source: The Future of the Global Muslim Population - Projections for 2010-2030, January 27, 2011, The Pew Forum, 2011, http://www.pewforum.org/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-europe.aspx
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 23 The “soft borders” and unofficial arrival of immigrants to Italy (2008)
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 24 The status of asylum seekers/refugees in the EU 1.5 million refugees living in the twenty seven Member States of the EU plus Norway & Switzerland. Compared to a global figure of 16 million. EU MS - sovereignty over asylum seekers/refugees. This means conditions and benefits asylum seekers/refugees vary in each EU Member State. Common European Asylum System is behind this harmonisation. Contains a number of legal instruments covering issues such as which Member State is responsible for hearing an asylum claim, the procedures to be used in reviewing the asylum claim and the living conditions pending a decision.
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 25 The status of asylum seekers/refugees in the EU Concern that Europe which once protected refugees, now eroding refugee protection. Past decade gradual erosion in the protection of the rights of refugees and migrants in Europe. Post 9/11 security policies pushed aside human rights concerns and responding to populist fear mongering. Backlashes against refugees became common for some politicians and sections of the media, blamed for rises in crime, health scares and economic woes. Refugees escape persecution to find freedom and safety. Portraying refugees and migrants as undeserving, greedy or criminal – thus fuelling hostility, hatred and racism.
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 26 The status of asylum seekers/refugees in the EU The EU has over the years paid lip service to the human rights of refugees and migrants. During the conflict in Libya European governments expressed outrage at widespread human rights violations and attacks against civilians committed by the Libyan regime. This exposed the double standard when it came to their own approach. Amnesty say pretence to promote the rights of refugees and migrants but condoning abusive practices, to prevent them from reaching Europe.
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 27 The status of asylum seekers/refugees in the EU Important cases of EU States failing to aid boats in distress in the Mediterranean - showing EU States’ bending to own electorate and backlash. Some EU states rolling back human rights gains. Expectation was that EU Member States will protect the rights of refugees and migrants and to come to their rescue when their lives are at risk. “The UK government strongly embraces the principle of managed migration, coupled with tough measures to tackle abuse of the asylum system and illegal immigration, while at the same time working to build tolerance and enthusiasm for legal migration” (OECD 2006).
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 28 The status of asylum seekers/refugees in the EU Tunisian asylum seekers face image problem Newly arrived Tunisian asylum seekers have been dubbed criminals in recent press reports and described as “the worst we have had to deal with” by asylum centre staff (SwissInfo, December 2011).
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 29 The place of Roma/Gypsies in Europe France's Immigration Policy Criticized for Targeting 'Gypsies‘ September 21, 2010 - A European Union official set off a political firestorm this week when she likened France’s new immigration policy of rounding up and deporting members of the Roma population -- commonly called Gypsies -- to Nazi ethnic cleansing in World War II.
Europe, Migration and refugees Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 30 Thank you Any questions?