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Phenology and The Natural World Master Naturalists LoriAnne Barnett Education Coordinator.

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Presentation on theme: "Phenology and The Natural World Master Naturalists LoriAnne Barnett Education Coordinator."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phenology and The Natural World Master Naturalists LoriAnne Barnett Education Coordinator

2 Objectives of today’s discussion:  Define phenology and explain its applicability to understanding changes in habitats  Understand the importance of record- keeping.  Understand long-term phenology monitoring.  Apply phenology to the Master Naturalist Program  Challenge!

3 Skills you will gain: Observation Record-keeping Species & Life cycle identification

4 What do I KNOW about PHENOLOGY?! What do I WANT TO KNOW? 10 minutes Opening Activity

5 Just to be clear… phRenology – a pseudoscience focused on measurements of the human skull and size of the brain phOnology – a branch of linguistics concerned with the organization of sounds in language

6 What is phenology? The science of the seasons Blooms and buds Hibernation, migration, emergence Easy to observe Photo credit: L. Barnett …it is the study of the timing of recurring plant and animal life- cycle stages, or phenophases, and their relationship to environmental conditions. Photo credit: P. Warren

7 Observing is experiencing Using nature as a guide Ecosystems, climate & phenology USA National Phenology Network Master Natualists Next Steps Photo credit: E. Alderson Photo credit: B. Powell Photo credit: P. Warren

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9 Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

10 Photo Credit: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Southeast Region, via Wikimedia Commons Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons Photo credit: L. Barnett

11 Photo credit: P. Warren Observing is experiencing Using nature as a guide Ecosystems, climate & phenology USA National Phenology Network Master Naturalists Next Steps Photo credit: E. Alderson Photo credit: B. Powell Photo credit: P. Warren

12 Using nature as a guide Tradition and Lore “Tribes kept track of seasons by giving distinct names to each recurring full moon.” November -Beaver Moon February – Full Worm Moon May – Full Flower Moon Photo credit: B. Powell Photo Credits: Wikimedia Commons unless otherwise notedPhoto credit: L. Barnett September – Harvest Moon

13 Jefferson Powell Thoreau

14 Garden re-created Photo credit: Monticello

15 Acer rubrum (red maple); Photo credit: D. Hartel Observing the same individual through the seasons

16 Understanding outdoor recreation schedules Photo credit: E. Stemmy Feeding times Following brackish waters Water temperature Spawning times related to temp - 55° - 68° F in Chesapeake Bay. April peak? Chesapeake Bay Spring Season for Striped Bass = May 16 – June 16

17 Cloned lilac program H ISTORIC L ILAC N ETWORK E STABLISHED IN THE 1950 S S ANTA R ITA E XPERIMENTAL R ANGE, G REEN V ALLEY, AZ Photo credit: L. Barnett

18 Photo credit: P. Warren Observing is experiencing Using nature as a guide Ecosystems, climate, & phenology USA National Phenology Network Master Naturalists Next Steps Photo credit: E. Alderson Photo credit: B. Powell Photo credit: P. Warren

19 Distribution Abiotic Biotic Abundance

20 BIOMES –World’s Major Communities Classified by major vegetation, adaptations to environment Aquatic Grassland Desert Forest Tundra Optimum conditions= NICHE

21 Weather Day-to-day changes in the Earth’s atmosphere. -Mark Twain Climate Long-term average of daily weather in a given area. It is about… …time

22 Annual average MINIMUM temperatures – 30 years

23 Sunset Climate Zones for the West Also account for: Latitude Hills and Valleys Elevation Ocean influence (humidity) Continental air Precipitation Microclimates ZONE 10: High desert areas of Arizona and New Mexico This zone consists mostly of the 3,300- to 5,000-foot elevations in parts of Arizona and New Mexico. It also includes parts of southern Utah and Nevada, and adjacent California desert. Zone 10 has a definite winter season—75 to more than 100 nights below 32°F (0°C).

24 Life Zones

25 Why is climate important to ecology? Climate drives what occurs where, what lives where, and how those species respond to their enviroment.

26 PHENOLOGY

27 Who observes phenology? Scientists Gardeners/Agriculturists Land managers Educators Youth Photo credit: C. Enquist Photo credit: P. Warren Photo credit: S. Schaffer

28 PLANT LIFE CYCLE GREEN GROWTH Requires Optimum Conditions

29 PLANT LIFE CYCLE FLOWER Requires Optimum Conditions

30 PLANT LIFE CYCLE SET SEED Requires Optimum Conditions

31 American kestrel Falco sparverius ©Wikimedia Commons Active

32 Complete Pupa INSECT LARVA PUPA ADULT

33 Reproduction Development Method Activity ANIMAL >> Mammal, Bird, Snake, Insect Flowers Fruits Leaves PLANT Observable life cycle events or PHENOPHASES

34 Why are the timing of life-cycle events important? SEASONAL CHANGE Species interrelations Shifting weather and climate affect all of these

35 PHENOLOGY CLIMATE CHANGE

36 Phenology and Climate Change Research, spring timing and range A three-way mismatch English Oak Winter Moth Pied Flycatcher Both et al Nature EARLIER SAME TIME EACH YEAR EARLIER

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41 CHANGES in: Arrival, birth, feeding Shifting range boundaries Changing morphology Extirpation or Extinction Economic impacts

42 Photo credit: P. Warren Observing is experiencing Using nature as a guide Ecosystems, climate, & phenology USA National Phenology Network Master Naturalists Next Steps Photo credit: E. Alderson Photo credit: B. Powell Photo credit: P. Warren

43 U NDERSTAND HOW SPECIES AND LANDSCAPES ARE RESPONDING TO CLIMATE CHANGE. Primary goal Create a standardized, long- term dataset for use in multiple types of research. Mission Make phenology data, models and related information available. Encourage people of all ages and backgrounds to observe and record phenology. Photo credit: C. Enquist

44 Photo credit: L. Romano

45 Plant and animal species = 943 total 3727 observers reporting (11,587 total) making 603,073 observations 13,249 sites, 6404 active sites As of 9/1/14

46 Reproduction Development Method Activity ANIMAL  Active individuals  Feeding  Male combat  Mating  Young individuals  Dead individuals  Individuals at a feeding station Flowers Fruits Leaves  Young leaves  Leaves  Colored leaves  Flowers or flower buds  Open flowers  Ripe fruits  Recent seed or fruit drop PLANT PHENOPHASES …How Many?

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48 Leaves Flowers Fruits Gambel Oak

49 Open flowers : One or more open, fresh flowers are visible on the plant. Flowers are considered "open" when the reproductive parts (male stamens or female pistils) are visible between or within unfolded or open flower parts (petals, floral tubes or sepals). Do not include wilted or dried flowers. For Quercus gambelii, the male flowers will open once the initially compact catkin has unfolded and is hanging loosely' Female flowers are open when the pistils are visible, but will be very difficult to see where they are out of reach’. Do you see…open flowers? Photo Credit: Utah State University Extension Photo credit: Evelyn Simak via Wikimedia Commons

50 Do you see…..Flowers or Flower Buds? Less than 3 3 to to to to 10,000 More than 10,000 Select the most appropriate bin Write the bin on the line What percentage of all fresh flowers are open? Less than 5% 5% - 24% 25% - 49% 50% - 74% 75% - 94% 95% or more Select the most appropriate bin Write the bin on the line

51 Acorn Woodpecker Photo from All About Birds

52 Breaking leaf buds Leaves Increasing leaf size Colored leaves Flowers or Flower Buds Open Flowers FruitsRipe Fruits Recent fruit or seed drop DECIDUOUS PLANT PHENOPHASES

53 Breaking leaf buds Leaves Increasing leaf size Colored leaves Flowers or Flower Buds Open Flowers FruitsRipe Fruits Recent fruit or seed drop DECIDUOUS PLANT PHENOPHASES

54 UNDERSTANDING PHENOPHASE DEFINITIONS 10 minutes Activity 2

55 After reviewing the definitions, discuss: 1.Something that you have seen before, or is familiar 2.Something that is confusing 3.Something you’d like to understand better Activity 2

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57 Enter Observations Online Photo credit: S. Schaffer

58 You MUST have your account completely set up online first to use the mobile apps!

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60 Red maple (Acer rubrum) in 2013 collected via Nature’s Notebook DATA DOWNLOAD

61 https://www.usanpn.org/results/data DATA DOWNLOAD

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63 2012. Primack, R. B, Miller-Rushing, A.J 7 day average 61 years 2-3 week average Bradley, N.L., Leopold, C.A., Ross, J., Huffacker, W. Sandhill crane and geese

64 Nature's Notebook data on flowering of 6 species of deciduous trees and eBird (Cornell Lab of Ornithology 2012, ebird.org) data on a long- distance migratory bird, the Tennessee warbler Interannual patterns of phenological synchrony and overlap

65 Fall Webworm phenology Timing – Fall IPM, natural

66 "Snowman on frozen lake" by Petritap - Own work. Licensed under Creative Wikimedia Commons. "Spring in Somerville, NJ File 3" by Siddharth Mallya - Own work. Licensed under Creative Wikimedia Commons "Owoce wisni" by Nova - Own work. Licensed under Creative Wikimedia Commons By Hans [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons

67 DATA ENTRY 20 minutes Activity 3

68 10 minutes

69 Photo credit: P. Warren Observing is experiencing Using nature as a guide Ecosystems, climate, & phenology USA National Phenology Network Master Naturalists Next Steps Photo credit: E. Alderson Photo credit: B. Powell Photo credit: P. Warren

70 Photo credit: L. Barnett

71 Phenology Plant & People Connections Local Ecology & Biodiversity Habitats Climate & Weather

72 Education

73 Citizen Science

74 Stewardship

75 Record keeping Consistent protocols Useable, scale-able Citizen science Data output Photo credit: L. Barnett

76 Photo credit: T. Brown via Wikimedia Commons Photo credit: Britton, N.L., and A. Brown., NRCS Plants BEurasian watermilfoil Photo credit: Hans Hillewaert via Wikimedia Commons Water Hyacinth American bullfrog

77 Photo credit: L. Barnett

78 Photo credit: P. Warren Observing is experiencing Using nature as a guide Ecosystems, climate, & phenology USA National Phenology Network Master Naturalists Next Steps Photo credit: E. Alderson Photo credit: B. Powell Photo credit: P. Warren

79 Photo credit: L. Barnett LONG-TERM PROGRAM PLANNING

80 Photo credit: L. Barnett Design a PHENOLOGY PROGRAM What is your science question? What outcomes, short and long term, do you want to achieve? What are the activities you can do? What are the resources you already have? Who would be potential partners?

81 When are mesquite beans ready for harvest? Volunteer Groups Local Partners

82 Photo credit: L. Barnett At what scale should your phenology-related outcomes be?  For you personally?  For your Master Naturalist Organization?  For a group you volunteer for as a Master Naturalist?

83 PROGRAM PLANNING 20 minutes Activity 4

84 Objectives of today’s discussion: Define phenology and explain its applicability to understanding changes in habitats Understand the importance of record- keeping. Understand long-term phenology monitoring. Apply phenology to the Master Naturalist Program Challenge!

85 Connect with USA-NPN… Sign up for a phenology quarterly e-newsletter Become an observer Discover new tools and resources LoriAnne Barnett


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