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Gastrointestinal Bleeding Jarrett Lefberg South Pointe Hospital.

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1 Gastrointestinal Bleeding Jarrett Lefberg South Pointe Hospital

2 Incidence Upper GI bleed 100/100,000 Upper GI bleed 100/100,000 Above the ligament of Treitz Above the ligament of Treitz Lower GI Bleed 20/100,000 Lower GI Bleed 20/100,000 Below the ligament of Treitz Below the ligament of Treitz Both are more common in males and elderly. Both are more common in males and elderly.

3 Causes of Upper GI Bleed 1) Peptic ulcer disease - most common 1) Peptic ulcer disease - most common cause cause A) duodenal ulcers 29% A) duodenal ulcers 29% will rebleed in 10% of cases within will rebleed in 10% of cases within 24-48h 24-48h B) gastric ulcers 16% B) gastric ulcers 16% more likely to rebleed more likely to rebleed C) stomal ulcers <5% C) stomal ulcers <5%

4 Causes of Upper GI Bleed 2) Erosive gastritis, esophagitis, duodenitis 2) Erosive gastritis, esophagitis, duodenitis some causes are ETOH, ASA, NSAID’s some causes are ETOH, ASA, NSAID’s 3) Esophageal and gastric varices 3) Esophageal and gastric varices causes by portal hypertension causes by portal hypertension 4) Mallory-Weiss syndrome – longitudinal 4) Mallory-Weiss syndrome – longitudinal mucosal tear in the cardioesophageal mucosal tear in the cardioesophageal region region caused by repeated retching caused by repeated retching

5 Causes of Upper GI Bleed 5) stress ulcers 5) stress ulcers 6) arteriovenous malformation 6) arteriovenous malformation 7) malignancy 7) malignancy 8) aortoenteric fistula 8) aortoenteric fistula

6 Causes of Lower GI Bleeding 1) Hemorrhoids - most common cause 1) Hemorrhoids - most common cause 2) Diverticulosis – common, painless, 2) Diverticulosis – common, painless, and can be massive and can be massive Caused from an erosion into a Caused from an erosion into a penetrating artery from the penetrating artery from the diverticulum. diverticulum. 3) Arteriovenous malformations – common 3) Arteriovenous malformations – common and seen in people with hypertension and and seen in people with hypertension and aortic stenosis aortic stenosis

7 Causes of Lower GI Bleeding 4) CA/polyps 4) CA/polyps 5) inflammatory bowel disease 5) inflammatory bowel disease 6) infectious gastroenteritis 6) infectious gastroenteritis 7) Meckel diverticulum 7) Meckel diverticulum

8 Diagnosis Questions to ask in history Questions to ask in history Any hematemesis, coffee-ground emesis, melena, or hematochezia. Any hematemesis, coffee-ground emesis, melena, or hematochezia. Any weight loss or changes in bowel habits. Any weight loss or changes in bowel habits. Any vomiting and retching. Any vomiting and retching. Any history aortic graft. Any history aortic graft. Any history of ASA, NSAID’s, steroids. Any history of ASA, NSAID’s, steroids. Any ETOH abuse. Any ETOH abuse. Any history of iron or bismuth which can simulate melena and beets which can simulate hematochezia. Note stool guaiac testing will be negative. Any history of iron or bismuth which can simulate melena and beets which can simulate hematochezia. Note stool guaiac testing will be negative.

9 Diagnosis Physical exam Physical exam Vital signs may show hypotension and tachycardia. Vital signs may show hypotension and tachycardia. Cool, clammy skin then in shock. Cool, clammy skin then in shock. Spider angiomata, palmer erythema, jaundice, and gynecomastia seen in liver disease. Spider angiomata, palmer erythema, jaundice, and gynecomastia seen in liver disease. Petechiae and purpura seen in coagulopathy. Petechiae and purpura seen in coagulopathy. Careful ENT exam to rule out causes that can mimic upper GI bleeds. Careful ENT exam to rule out causes that can mimic upper GI bleeds. Proper abdominal exam and rectal exam. Proper abdominal exam and rectal exam.

10 Diagnosis Lab Lab CBC CBC Electrolytes Electrolytes Glucose Glucose BUN/Creatine –BUN will be elevated in upper GI bleeds BUN/Creatine –BUN will be elevated in upper GI bleeds Coagulation studies Coagulation studies Liver function studies Liver function studies Type and cross-match Type and cross-match

11 Diagnosis Diagnostic Diagnostic ECG ECG Abdominal series - not beneficial unless specific indications Abdominal series - not beneficial unless specific indications Angiography - can be diagnostic and therapeutic but requires a brisk bleed at.5-2ml/min Angiography - can be diagnostic and therapeutic but requires a brisk bleed at.5-2ml/min Bleeding scans - can only be diagnostic but are more sensitive then angiography and require a bleeding rate of only.1ml/min Bleeding scans - can only be diagnostic but are more sensitive then angiography and require a bleeding rate of only.1ml/min Colonoscopy - is diagnostic and therapeutic and more accurate than bleeding scans and angiography Colonoscopy - is diagnostic and therapeutic and more accurate than bleeding scans and angiography

12 Treatment Large-bore intravenous lines with fluid replacement. Large-bore intravenous lines with fluid replacement. Class I + II hemorrhage replace with crystalloid. Class I + II hemorrhage replace with crystalloid. Class III + IV hemorrhage replace with crystalloid and blood. Class III + IV hemorrhage replace with crystalloid and blood. NG tube should be placed and can determine upper GI from lower GI but not 100%. Also NG tubes will not worsen varice bleeds. NG tube should be placed and can determine upper GI from lower GI but not 100%. Also NG tubes will not worsen varice bleeds. Foley catheter for hypotension patients to monitor output. Foley catheter for hypotension patients to monitor output.

13 Treatment Proton-pump inhibitor Proton-pump inhibitor Endoscopy Endoscopy Somatostatin, octretide for varices Somatostatin, octretide for varices Balloon tamponade Balloon tamponade Surgery Surgery Must get early consultation with gastroenterologist and general surgeon for significant GI bleeds. Must get early consultation with gastroenterologist and general surgeon for significant GI bleeds.

14 Peptic Ulcer Disease Jarrett Lefberg South Pointe Hospital

15 Epidemiology 10% US population >17 years of age have peptic ulcer disease at some time. 10% US population >17 years of age have peptic ulcer disease at some time. White Americans have a 10% prevalence of H. pylori by age 35 and 80% by age 75. White Americans have a 10% prevalence of H. pylori by age 35 and 80% by age 75. Black Americans have a 45% prevalence of H. pylori by age 25. Black Americans have a 45% prevalence of H. pylori by age 25.

16 Pathophysiology Prostaglandins produce mucous and bicarbonate ions which protect the tissue in the stomach by being destroyed with hydrochloric acid and pepsin. Prostaglandins produce mucous and bicarbonate ions which protect the tissue in the stomach by being destroyed with hydrochloric acid and pepsin. Dyspepsia is the imbalance between the protective mucosa and acid/pepsin. Dyspepsia is the imbalance between the protective mucosa and acid/pepsin. Peptic ulcer which is a defect beyond muscularis mucosa will develop if there is an imbalance. Peptic ulcer which is a defect beyond muscularis mucosa will develop if there is an imbalance. Note -stress ulcers do not extent through the muscularis mucosa. Note -stress ulcers do not extent through the muscularis mucosa.

17 Pathophysiology Two types of peptic ulcers Two types of peptic ulcers 1) Duodenal ulcers which occur in the first portion of the duodenum. 1) Duodenal ulcers which occur in the first portion of the duodenum. 2) Gastric ulcers which usually occur in the lesser curvature of the stomach. 2) Gastric ulcers which usually occur in the lesser curvature of the stomach.

18 Causes H. pylori - a spiral, urease producing flagellated bacterium which lives between the mucus gel and mucosa. Its production of urease, cytotoxins, proteases and other compounds disturb the gel and increase tissue exposure to acid and pepsin. H. pylori - a spiral, urease producing flagellated bacterium which lives between the mucus gel and mucosa. Its production of urease, cytotoxins, proteases and other compounds disturb the gel and increase tissue exposure to acid and pepsin. H. pylori is seen in 95% of patients with duodenal ulcers and 80% of gastric ulcers. H. pylori is seen in 95% of patients with duodenal ulcers and 80% of gastric ulcers. Note only 10-20% of patients who are infected with H. pylori will develop ulcers. Note only 10-20% of patients who are infected with H. pylori will develop ulcers.

19 Causes NSAID’s - inhibit prostaglandins which in turn increases tissue exposure to acid and pepsin. NSAID’s - inhibit prostaglandins which in turn increases tissue exposure to acid and pepsin. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome - is a gastrin secreting tumor which creates such a high acid level it over rides the protective gel. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome - is a gastrin secreting tumor which creates such a high acid level it over rides the protective gel. Cigarette smoking - inhibits bicarbonate ion production and increases gastric emptying. Cigarette smoking - inhibits bicarbonate ion production and increases gastric emptying.

20 Causes Bile salts Bile salts Emotional stress Emotional stress Type O blood Type O blood Prolonged use of corticosteriods Prolonged use of corticosteriods Caffeinated beverages Caffeinated beverages Note diet and alcohol are not predisposing factors to the development of peptic ulcers. Note diet and alcohol are not predisposing factors to the development of peptic ulcers.

21 Clinical Features Epigastric pain - (gnawing, aching or burning) is the main complaint. Epigastric pain - (gnawing, aching or burning) is the main complaint. Gastric ulcers usually develop pain shortly after eating. Gastric ulcers usually develop pain shortly after eating. Duodenal ulcers usually develop pain 2-3 hours after eating and awaken patients at night. Pain can be relieved by food. Duodenal ulcers usually develop pain 2-3 hours after eating and awaken patients at night. Pain can be relieved by food. Physical exam of uncomplicated PUD, there may be a finding of epigastric tenderness. Physical exam of uncomplicated PUD, there may be a finding of epigastric tenderness.

22 Diagnosis Definite diagnosis can only be made by visualization with an upper GI or endoscopy. Definite diagnosis can only be made by visualization with an upper GI or endoscopy. Endoscopy has the advantage of being able to take a biopsy which is definitely needed for gastric ulcers to rule out malignancy. Endoscopy has the advantage of being able to take a biopsy which is definitely needed for gastric ulcers to rule out malignancy.

23 Diagnosis Several ways to determine H. pylori infection Several ways to determine H. pylori infection 1) invasive 1) invasive a) during endoscopy a rapid urease test, histologic a) during endoscopy a rapid urease test, histologic study, or culture can be done. study, or culture can be done. 2) noninvasive 2) noninvasive a) serologic studies which can not be done as a a) serologic studies which can not be done as a follow up for cure due to antibodies being follow up for cure due to antibodies being positive for several years after eradication of positive for several years after eradication of infection. infection. b) urea breath test can be used to confirm cure. b) urea breath test can be used to confirm cure. c) stool antigens test can also be used to confirm c) stool antigens test can also be used to confirm cure. cure.

24 Treatment Stop any offending agents such as NSAID’s. Stop any offending agents such as NSAID’s. Bland diets with frequent feedings has not been shown to be effective. Bland diets with frequent feedings has not been shown to be effective.

25 Treatment Antacids – neutralize gastric acids. Antacids – neutralize gastric acids. a) good for acute pain relief and healing ulcers. a) good for acute pain relief and healing ulcers. b) poor compliance due frequency of doses. b) poor compliance due frequency of doses. c) inhibit absorption of some drugs such as warfarin, c) inhibit absorption of some drugs such as warfarin, digoxin, some anticonvulsants and antibiotics. digoxin, some anticonvulsants and antibiotics. d) aluminum causes constipation and should not be d) aluminum causes constipation and should not be given with renal failure patients due to given with renal failure patients due to accumulation which can cause osteoporosis and accumulation which can cause osteoporosis and encephalopathy. encephalopathy. e) magnesium causes diarrhea. e) magnesium causes diarrhea.

26 Treatment H2- Antagonists – inhibit gastric acid secretion H2- Antagonists – inhibit gastric acid secretion a) equally as effective as antacids with better a) equally as effective as antacids with better compliance due to decreased frequency of compliance due to decreased frequency of doses. doses. b) cimetidine inhibits cytochrome p450 system b) cimetidine inhibits cytochrome p450 system greater than other H2-antagonists which greater than other H2-antagonists which will cause an increase in drugs such as will cause an increase in drugs such as warfarin, phenytoin, diazepam, TCA’s, propranolol, warfarin, phenytoin, diazepam, TCA’s, propranolol, etc. etc. c) renal excretion and therefore must adjust doses in c) renal excretion and therefore must adjust doses in patients with renal disease. patients with renal disease.

27 Treatment Proton Pump Inhibitors - inhibit gastric acid secretion Proton Pump Inhibitors - inhibit gastric acid secretion a) heal ulcers faster then H2-antagonists and a) heal ulcers faster then H2-antagonists and antacids. antacids. b) omeprazole has also been shown to affect b) omeprazole has also been shown to affect the cytochrome p450 system. the cytochrome p450 system. c) lansoprazole does not affect other drug c) lansoprazole does not affect other drug metabolism. metabolism. d) pantoprazole has been shown to decrease d) pantoprazole has been shown to decrease bleeding from peptic ulcers. bleeding from peptic ulcers.

28 Treatment Sulcralfate – locally binds to the base of the ulcer and therefore protects it from acid Sulcralfate – locally binds to the base of the ulcer and therefore protects it from acid a) Also has been shown to absorb bile acids, a) Also has been shown to absorb bile acids, inhibit pepsin activity, and increase inhibit pepsin activity, and increase prostaglandin production. prostaglandin production. b) Needs an acidic environment to work b) Needs an acidic environment to work therefore not beneficial to give antacids therefore not beneficial to give antacids c) Causes constipation, dry mouth and inhibits c) Causes constipation, dry mouth and inhibits the absorption of many medications. the absorption of many medications.

29 Treatment Misoprostol – prostaglandin E1 analogue which acts as natural prostaglandin in the body Misoprostol – prostaglandin E1 analogue which acts as natural prostaglandin in the body a) Only indicated for prevention of NSAID a) Only indicated for prevention of NSAID -induced gastric ulcers in high risk patients. -induced gastric ulcers in high risk patients. b) contraindicated in pregnant women and b) contraindicated in pregnant women and women in childbearing age because it women in childbearing age because it causes spontaneous abortion. causes spontaneous abortion. c) can cause diarrhea and crampy abdominal c) can cause diarrhea and crampy abdominal pain. pain.

30 Treatment Bismuth compounds – decrease pepsin activity, increase mucus secretion, form a barrier protection on ulcers, augment prostaglandin synthesis, slow hydrogen ion diffusion across mucosal barrier, and H. pylori bactericidal effect. Bismuth compounds – decrease pepsin activity, increase mucus secretion, form a barrier protection on ulcers, augment prostaglandin synthesis, slow hydrogen ion diffusion across mucosal barrier, and H. pylori bactericidal effect. a) Used in triple drug combinations for a) Used in triple drug combinations for the treatment of H. pylori. the treatment of H. pylori.

31 Treatment If H. pylori positive then must be given antibiotics to prevent recurrence of ulcer. If H. pylori positive then must be given antibiotics to prevent recurrence of ulcer. Usually done with triple or quadruple treatment regimens. Usually done with triple or quadruple treatment regimens. Some antibiotics in regimens are metronidazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin, clarithromycin. Some antibiotics in regimens are metronidazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin, clarithromycin.

32 Complications of PUD GI bleeding is the most common complication of PUD and the most common cause of upper GI bleeding. GI bleeding is the most common complication of PUD and the most common cause of upper GI bleeding. Please see previous lecture on management of GI Bleeding. Please see previous lecture on management of GI Bleeding.

33 Complications of PUD Perforation Perforation Initially a chemical peritonitis develops which then progresses to a bacterial peritonitis. Initially a chemical peritonitis develops which then progresses to a bacterial peritonitis. Anterior perforation - patients will have sudden abdominal pain with guarding and rebound % will demonstrate free air of x-rays. Anterior perforation - patients will have sudden abdominal pain with guarding and rebound % will demonstrate free air of x-rays. Posterior perforation - patients will develop back pain with no free air on x-ray and may mimic pancreatitis but lipase will be normal or only slightly elevated. Posterior perforation - patients will develop back pain with no free air on x-ray and may mimic pancreatitis but lipase will be normal or only slightly elevated. No free air on x-rays cannot rule our perforation. No free air on x-rays cannot rule our perforation. IV fluids, electrolyte corrections, NG tube, broad spectrum antibiotics and surgery. IV fluids, electrolyte corrections, NG tube, broad spectrum antibiotics and surgery.

34 Complications of PUD Gastric outlet obstruction Gastric outlet obstruction Scaring from healed ulcers or edema from active ulcer with development of obstruction. Scaring from healed ulcers or edema from active ulcer with development of obstruction. Obstruction will cause gastric dilation, vomiting, dehydration, metabolic alkalosis. Obstruction will cause gastric dilation, vomiting, dehydration, metabolic alkalosis. Patients will develop upper abdominal pain with vomiting, early satiety, weight loss, succussion splash. Patients will develop upper abdominal pain with vomiting, early satiety, weight loss, succussion splash. Abdominal x-ray will show dilated stomach shadow with large air-fluid level. Abdominal x-ray will show dilated stomach shadow with large air-fluid level. IV fluids, electrolyte corrections, NG tube, and surgery if needed. IV fluids, electrolyte corrections, NG tube, and surgery if needed.

35 Questions The most common cause of a lower GI bleed is? The most common cause of a lower GI bleed is? A) Diverticulosis A) Diverticulosis B) Cancer B) Cancer C) Hemorrhoids C) Hemorrhoids D) AV malformations D) AV malformations

36 Questions 2) Colonoscopy is diagnostic and therapeutic and is more accurate than bleeding scans and angiography for GI bleeds. 2) Colonoscopy is diagnostic and therapeutic and is more accurate than bleeding scans and angiography for GI bleeds. T/F T/F 3) Only 40% of patients who are infected with H. pylori will develop ulcers. 3) Only 40% of patients who are infected with H. pylori will develop ulcers. T/F T/F

37 Questions 4) Treatment of ulcers which are positive for H. pylori need? 4) Treatment of ulcers which are positive for H. pylori need? A) only a longer coarse of PPI A) only a longer coarse of PPI B) addition of antibiotics B) addition of antibiotics C) need an inpatient coarse of C) need an inpatient coarse of treatment treatment D) can be treated the same as ulcers D) can be treated the same as ulcers that are negative for H. pylori that are negative for H. pylori

38 Answers 1) C 1) C 2) T 2) T 3) F 3) F 4) B 4) B


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