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Science, Energy, and the Environment Final Exam Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Science, Energy, and the Environment Final Exam Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science, Energy, and the Environment Final Exam Review

2 Areas Energy SoilTrash

3 1. All of the following are forms of indirect solar energy except: a. windb. flowing water c. geothermal energyd. firewood

4 2. Most commercial energy comes from a. direct solar energyb. indirect solar energy c. extracting and burning fossil fuels d. nuclear energy

5 3. To make decisions about energy alternatives, we need to ask: a. What is the estimated net useful energy yield? b. How much will it cost to develop, phase in, and use? c. What are the potential environmental and social impacts? d. all of these

6 4. To reduce energy waste we must a. increase energy consumption b. improve energy efficiency c. switch from fossil fuels d. use only solar technologies

7 5. Reducing energy use and waste does all of the following except: a. extend the length of time fossil fuels will last b. ease international tensions c. improve global military security d. cause an economic recession

8 6. Which of the following reasons is the worst explanation for the lack of US interest in energy efficiency? a. Currently fossil fuels are cheap. b. Other industrialized countries are not pursuing strong energy-efficient policies. c. Environmental pollution costs are not reflected in the price of fossil fuels. d. Harmful health costs are not reflected in the price of fossil fuels.

9 7. Electric cars a. are noisy b. have been totally ignored c. have batteries that last a car’s lifetime d. require less maintenance

10 8. Renewable energy resources include all of the following except a. the sun b. the wind c. nuclear power d. Earth’s internal heat.

11 9. Developing renewable energy resources would a. save money and create jobs b. eliminate the need for oil imports c. increase national security d. all of the above

12 10. Cells that convert solar energy directly into electricity are called a. electrosolar chips b. photovoltaic cells c. helioelectric units d. photoelectric cells

13 11. Tidal power plants a. have high construction costs b. run on water that flows in and out of coastal bays c. have few suitable sites d. all of these

14 12. Wind power a. is an unlimited source of energy at favorable sites b. offers quick construction time c. has a moderate to high net useful energy yield d. all of these

15 13. Wind farms a. may be noisy b. may interfere with migratory birds c. require backup energy if the wind is not steady d. all of these

16 14. Biomass includes a. wood and wood products b. manure c. gaseous biofuels d. all of these

17 15. A major disadvantage of using biomass energy is a. high moisture content which lowers the net energy yield b. higher nitrous oxide and sulfur dioxide emissions than other sources of energy c. lack of versatility in its use and application d. that it is not renewable.

18 16. Which of the following statements about geothermal energy is false? a. It is moderate net energy yields for large, accessible sites. b. Easily accessible geothermal sites are rare. c. It releases much carbon dioxide. d. It can further degrade forests and other adjacent ecosystems.

19 17. Oil is widely used because it a. is relatively cheap b. is easily transported c. has a high net useful energy yield d. all of these answers

20 18. The fatal flaw of oil is that it a. produces more carbon dioxide than any other fuel b. produces destruction of nature through oil spills c. can contaminate groundwater supplies d. will be commercially depleted in the relatively near future

21 19. ____ is the dirtiest fossil fuel to burn. a. oilb. natural gas c. coald. wood

22 20. The key advantage to using fuel cells even though some use fossil fuels is a. that they are cheap b. can be made commercially c. are highly efficient d. are still in the developmental state

23 SOIL Vocabulary, Issues, and Agriculture

24 21. Soil is composed of a. mineral nutrients b. air and water c. microscopic decomposers d. all of these answers

25 22. Soil indirectly provides humans with a. medicines b. pure water c. recycling services d. all of these answers

26 23. A cross-sectional view of the _____ in a soil is properly termed a soil ______. a. horizons then profile b. horizons then sample c. surface litter then sample d. surface litter then profile

27 24. Humus is a. something you put on pita crackers b. indicative of poor soils c. light colored or nearly white d. partially decomposed organic matter

28 25. The downward movement of water through soil is called a. infiltrationb. weathering c. porosityd. accumulation

29 26. Which of the following types of soils has the least pore space? a. siltb. loam c. clayd. sand

30 27. Which of the following sites would be expected to have the most rapid erosion rates? a. agricultural land b. forest c. rangeland d. construction sites

31 28. Conservation tillage reduces a. labor costs b. amount of erosion c. water loss from soil d. all of these answers

32 29. Contour farming involves a. converting a steep slope into a series of terraces. b. building a series of small dams c. plowing at right angles to slopes d. plowing straight down slope or straight up slope

33 30. Planting crops in alternating rows of close- growing plants a. creates windbreaks b. is called strip cropping c. is called crop rotation d. increases erosion rates

34 31. In alley cropping a. crops are planted between hedgerows of trees b. terraces are built to prevent swift water runoff c. plowing runs across slopes d. special tillers are used so the topsoil is not disturbed

35 32. Which of the following is not one of the three major types of organic fertilizer? a. green manureb. sewage sludge c. compostd. animal manure

36 33. The term under nutrition refers to people who a. eat less than the basic minimum of calories per day b. eat balanced meals c. eat too much food d. suffer from poor food quality

37 34. The term malnutrition refers to people who a. eat less than the basic minimum of calories per day b. eat balanced meals c. eat too much food d. suffer from not eating the needed balance of nutrition

38 35. A pest is any organism that a. spreads disease b. interferes with human activity c. competes with humans d. all of these

39 36. Pesticides kill a. rodentsb. weeds c. insectsd. all of these

40 37. According to pesticide proponents, pesticides a. work faster than alternate controls b. increase profit for farmers c. saves money and lives d. all of these

41 38. Pesticide applications have threatened a. honeybee colonies b. predatory birds c. fish-eating birds d. all of these

42 39. Sustainable agriculture is characterized by a major use of a. massive irrigation projects b. fossil fuels c. pesticides d. organic fertilizers

43 40. An individual can support the concept of sustainable agriculture by a. eating lower on the food chain b. developing a home garden c. using biological pest control d. all of these answers

44 Waste and Recycling 3R’s, management, and issues

45 41. Which of the following questions is least likely to be asked by an environmentalist? a. Where do we put all of this waste? b. What strategies can turn the waste of one industry into the resources for another? c. What policies encourage products that last? d. How can industries reduce the formation of toxic by-products?

46 42. The top priority in pollution prevention approach to solid waste would be a. recyclingb. reusing c. reducingd. burning

47 43. A low-waste approach a. eliminates unnecessary packaging b. makes a products last longer c. uses less material d. all of these answers

48 44. Compost is most completely described as a. manure b. landfill by-products c. pure garbage d. soil conditioner & organic fertilizer

49 45. Which of the following substances can be recovered from solid waste? a. metalsb. plastics c. paperd. all of these

50 46. Consumers of recycled products are most effective when they maximize the amount of ______ waste in the products. a. pre-producerb. post-producer c. pre-consumerd. post-consumer

51 47. Environmentalists would most object to plastics used in a. lunch boxesb. shampoo bottles c. packagingd. storage containers

52 48. Obstacles to recycling in the US include a. environmental cost b. inconvenience c. tax breaks d. all of these

53 49. Secondary recycling means a. materials are remade into the same product (paper to paper) b. materials are remade into different products (jeans to carpet) c. materials are recycled before they are used by a consumer d. all of the above

54 50. The study of environmental science includes a. anthrosphere b. biosphere c. hydrosphere d. all of the spheres


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