Presentation on theme: "Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright Pests and Pest Control PPT by Clark E. Adams Chapter 16."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright Pests and Pest Control PPT by Clark E. Adams Chapter 16
Pests and Pest Control The need for pest control Promises and problems of the chemical approach Alternative pest control methods Socioeconomic issues in pest management Pesticides and policy
Formosan Subterranean Termite Invades the French Quarter
The Need for Pest Control Any organism that has a negative effect on human health or economics Any organism that is noxious, destructive, or troublesome Plants or animals (see Fig. 16-2) Formosan termite Fire ants Aedes mosquito Medfly
Pest Control Purposes Protect our food Protect our health Convenience
Resurgence and Secondary Outbreaks Resurgences: after “eliminating” a pest, its population rebounds in even higher numbers than previous levels. Secondary outbreaks: outbreaks of species’ populations that were not previously at pest levels.
The Bugs Are Coming! Time Magazine, July 12, 1976, page 38
Human Health Effects Cancer, dermatitis, neurological disorder, birth defects, sterility, endocrine system disruption, immune system depression. Agricultural workers suffer acute poisoning during pesticide application.
Human Health Effects Aerial spraying and dumping bring pesticides in contact with families and children. Soldiers exposed to agent orange in Vietnam suffered high rates of cancer and other diseases.
Environmental Effects DDT led to the decline in populations of several bird species Bald eagle Peregrine falcon Bioaccumulation Biomagnification
Natural Chemical Control A volatile chemical produced by the opposite sex of a species which alters the reproductive behavior of the opposite sex. Perfumes Colognes After shave Natural body odors
Natural Chemical Control Manipulation of pests’ hormones or pheromones to disrupt the life cycle Japanese beetle trap (see Fig. 16-18)
Socioeconomic Issues of Pest Management Pressures to use pesticides Integrated pest management Organically grown food
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) An approach to controlling pest populations using all suitable methods— chemical and ecological—in a way that brings about long-term management of pest populations and also has minimal environmental impact
Pesticides and Policy Fifra: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act FQPA of 1996: Food Quality Protection Act Pesticides in developing countries
FIFRA or FQPA? Pesticides evaluated on intended use and potential effects to human health and the environment Training and protection of agricultural workers Protection of public from risks of pesticides used on food