2What is a Pesticide? First-Generation Pesticides Inorganic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury)Botanicals (e.g., nicotine, pyrethrin)Pyrethrin is used against mosquitosNicotine has been banned as pesticide since 2001
4What is a Pesticide? Second-Generation Pesticides Synthetic botanicals (e.g., pyrethroids)DDT
5What is a Pesticide? The Major Groups of Insecticides Chlorinated hydrocarbon (e.g., DDT)Organophosphates (e.g., malathion) The chemicals in this class kill insects by disrupting their brains and nervous systems. Unfortunately, these chemicals also can harm the brains and nervous systems of animals and humansCarbamates (e.g., carbaryl)
6SHORT-TERM HEALTH HAZARDS - The carbamate pesticides listed above are highly poisonous chemicals, with the exception of carbaryl(SEVIN), which is moderately poisonous.- All these chemicals can be absorbed through the skin, especially through cuts and scratches, so direct contactshould be avoided.- Carbamates are highly irritating to the eyes.LONG-TERM HEALTH HAZARDS- Carbamates are generally not considered to be cancerous, with two exceptions. Carbaryl (SEVIN) andcarbofuran (FURADAN) can mix with other elements in the stomach to form possible cancerous chemicals.- Some carbamates, such as carbofuran (FURADAN), have been shown to cause birth defects or reproductionproblems in laboratory animals. Further studies are required for specific compounds.- Carbamates do not accumulate and persist in the body.
7What is a Pesticide? The Major Kinds of Herbicides Selective herbicides(e.g., 2,4-D – kills broad-leaved plants)Nonselective herbicides(e.g., glyphosate, aka: Round-UpTM)
9Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Benefit: Disease ControlLocation of malaria
10Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Benefit: Crop productionFarmers save ~$3 - $5 in crops for every $1 invested into pesticidesMo money, mo money, mo money!!!
11Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance# of species exhibiting genetic resistance to pesticides
12Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Evolution of Genetic ResistanceCreates a pesticide treadmillKills most pestsResistant surviveNumbers increaseINCREASEPesticide applicationEVEN MORENew population genetically resistant
13Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Evolution of Genetic ResistanceResistance ManagementCreate a “refuge” (no pesticide applied)Avoid repeated use of same pesticide
14Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem
15California red scale was introduced into California between 1868 and 1875, apparently on citrus seedlings from Australia. The scale insect is native to Southeast Asia but has been transported on citrus seedlings to all arid and semiarid regions of the world where citrus is grown. It occurs in all of California's citrus growing areas.
16Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Imbalances in the EcosystemCreation of New Pests
17Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological MagnificationBiomagnification of DDT
18Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Mobility in the Environment
21Risks of Pesticides to Human Health Short-term Effects of PesticidesHandling of food with pesticide residue
22There are two types of exposure: chronic and acute, like me!!! Move over Bowles, that’s my line!!!
23Risks of Pesticides to Human Health Short-term Effects of PesticidesCase-in-Point: The Bhopal Disaster40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas released600,000 people exposed2,500 immediately killed2,500 more killed through time50,000-60,000 have serious health problems
24Risks of Pesticides to Human Health Long-term Effects of PesticidesPotentially higher risk of cancerSterilityMiscarriage / birth defectsPotentially higher risk for Parkinson’s disease
25Alternatives to Pesticides Using Cultivation Methods to Control PestsInterplant mixtures of plantsStrip cuttingPlanting, fertilizing, and irrigating at proper timeCrop rotation
26Alternatives to Pesticides Biological ControlsUsing naturally occurring diseases, parasites, or predators to control a pestPheromones and HormonesUse pheromones to attract insects to trapsSynthetic hormones induce abnormal developmentReproductive ControlsSterile-male technique – inundate pest population with large numbers of sterile males
27Alternatives to Pesticides Genetic ControlsUsing Genetically Modified plants (GMOs)Case-in-Point: Bt, Its Potential and ProblemsGenetically modified corn to produce Bt toxinPotential problem: may affect non-target species, such as monarch butterflyQuarantine
28Alternatives to Pesticides Integrated Pest Management
29Alternatives to Pesticides Integrated Pest ManagementIPM introducedRice Production in Indonesia
30Alternatives to Pesticides Irradiating FoodsPredominantly used on meatsKills many microorganismsThis really makes Zombies! No listen to me, they will take over the world, they already live in the oceans!!!
31Laws Controlling Pesticide Use Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (1938)Pesticide Chemicals Amendment (1954)Delaney Cause (1958)Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947)Estimates of Risk of Cancer from Pesticide Residue
32Laws Controlling Pesticide Use Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (1938)Pesticide Chemicals Amendment (1954)Delaney Cause (1958)Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947)Food Quality Protection Act (1996)
33The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides Some US companies still make banned or seriously restricted pesticides and export the product.This can potentially lead to the importation of food tainted with banned pesticidesSoylent Green is People!
34The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides The Global Ban of Persistent Organic Pollutants