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Chapter 22 Pest Management. What is a Pesticide Pesticides can be all of the following:  Insecticides  Herbicides  Fungicides  Rodenticides  Narrow.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Pest Management. What is a Pesticide Pesticides can be all of the following:  Insecticides  Herbicides  Fungicides  Rodenticides  Narrow."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22 Pest Management

2 What is a Pesticide Pesticides can be all of the following:  Insecticides  Herbicides  Fungicides  Rodenticides  Narrow spectrum pesticide-  Broad spectrum pesticide-

3  Second generation pesticide  Synthetic poison  Ex: DDT, malathion, atrazine  First generation pesticide  Inorganic compounds  Botanicals

4 Major Groups of Insecticides  Chlorinated Hydrocarbons  Slow to degrade and persist in the environment  Banned or largely restricted  Organophosphates  Most poisonous insecticide  Do not persist as long as chlorinated hydrocarbons  Cabamates  Broad spectrum; derived from cabamic acid

5 Benefits of Pesticides  Crop Protection  Pests eat and destroy 1/3 of world’s crops  Farmers save $$  Disease control  Fleas, lice and mosquitoes carry disease  Malaria- mosquito born  DDT

6 Locations of Malaria

7 Problems with Pesticides  Evolution of Genetic Resistance

8 Pesticide Resistance  Pesticide Treadmill  Cost of applying pesticide increases  While their effectiveness decreases  Resistance Management

9 Problems with Pesticides  Imbalances the Ecosystem  Spraying to kill insects can affect birds, rabbits, etc.

10 Problems with Pesticides  Creation of New Pests

11 Problems with Pesticides  Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification Do these words look familiar? They should!

12 Problems with Pesticides  Mobility in the Environment  Do not stay where they are applied All leads back to humans Or the environment!

13  Mild: nausea, vomiting, headaches  Severe: damage to nervous system, Risk of Pesticides to Human Health  Short-term Effects of Pesticides  Handling food with pesticide residue

14 Risk of Pesticides to Human Health  Long-term Effects of Pesticides  Cancer  Sterility  Miscarriage  Birth defects  Decreases body’s ability to fight infection  Potential connection to Parkinson’s disease

15 Alternatives to Pesticides  Using cultivation methods to control pests  Interplant mixtures of plants (alternating rows)  Strip cutting  Proper timing of planting, fertilizing, and irrigating  Crop rotation  Reproductive Controls  Sterilizing some of the members

16 Alternatives to Pesticides  Biological Control  Use of naturally occurring disease organisms, parasites or predators to control pests

17 Alternatives to Pesticides  Pheromones and Hormones  By applying insect hormones at wrong time in life cycle, insects can be killed off  Genetic Controls  Genetically Modified plants (GMOs)  Bt toxin  Potential problem: may affect non-target species  Quarantine  Restriction of the importation of exotic plant and animal material that might harbor pests

18 Systems Approach - Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  IPM  Combination of pest control methods that keeps pest population low without economic loss

19 Integrated Pest Management

20 IPM Introduced Systems Approach - Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  Rice Production in Indonesia

21 Alternatives to Pesticides  Irradiating Food  Harvested food is expose to ionizing radiation, which kills many microorganisms  Somewhat controversial due to potential for free radicals

22 Laws Controlling Pesticide Use  Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (1938)  Pesticide Chemicals Amendment (1954)  Delaney Cause (1958)  Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947, updated most recently in 2008)  Food Quality Protection Act (1996)

23 Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides  Some US companies still make banned or seriously restricted pesticides  Product is exported  Importation of food w/banned pesticides  Global ban of persistent organic pollutants  Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2004)

24 Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides - The Dirty Dozen

25 Links thanks to Duke University   -- learn about some well known pests (like aphids, beetles, and grasshoppers)   -- find out all the information about some of the most notorious pests   -- find some statistics on the use of pesticides   -- how long will it take to reach 9 billion people in the world? Click here to find out.   -- learn more about the safety of pesticides.   -- here are some reasons why pesticides are dangerous   -- find out about pesticides in common, everyday foods   -- more information about your favorite pests


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