Presentation on theme: "Language Ideology and English Jenkins (2003, pp. 29-33, 43-47, 138-143)"— Presentation transcript:
Language Ideology and English Jenkins (2003, pp. 29-33, 43-47, 138-143)
Standard Language Ideology: S tandard language Standard Language is the term used for that variety of a language which is considered to be the norm. It is a prestige variety. Standard language is spoken by a minority occupying positions of power.
Standard Language Ideology: Language s tandards Language standards are the reverse sidew of the standard language coin. They are the prescriptive language rules which together constitute the standard and to which all members of a language community are exposed and urged to conform during education, regardless of the local variety.
Critiques Language Standards - not to function in the interest of certain groups, especially speakers of New Englishes - should be made more inclusive (Parakrama, 1995) Standard Languages - ‘quite abnormal’ (Hudson, 1996: 32) - ‘the result of a direct and deliberate intervention by society’ (ibid)
Standard Languages: Process of intervention (cf. Hudson, 1996) 1.Selection: one variety rather than any other 2.Codification: ‘fixed’ in grammar books 3.Elaboration of function: in government, law, education, science and literature 4.Acceptance: standard variety as a strong unifying force for the state, as a symbol of its independence of other states…and as a marker of its difference from other states
Definitions of Standard English 1 The dialect of educated people throughout the British Isles. It is the dialect normally used in writing, for teaching in schools and universities, and heard on radio and television (Hughes & Trudgill, 1979).
Definitions of Standard English 2 Standard English … is that set of grammatical and lexical forms which is typically used in speech and writing by educated native speakers (Trudguill, 1984).
Definitions of Standard English 3 The term of “Standard English” is misleading: 1) it only covers “the grammar and the core vocabulary of the educated usage”; 2) it does not include pronunciation (Strevens, 1985).
Definitions of Standard English 4 The variety of English employed in writing and normally spoken by educated speakers. It is the variety that is taught for the students of English as a foreign or second language (Trudgill & Hannah, 1994).
Definitions of Standard English 5 Since the 1980s, the notion of ‘standard’ has been the target of debate about the English language. Crystal (1995) even suggests that “we may define the Standard English of an English-speaking country as a minority variety … which carries most prestige and is most widely understood.”
Summing-up Standard English 1 Accent is not involved - it is not pronunciation (Strevens, 1985) A case of grammar and vocabulary - used in speech and writing by educated native speakers (Trudgill, 1984)
Summing-up Standard English 2 The variety promoted through the education system - used in writing (Hughes and Trudgill, 1979) - for teaching in schools and universities (ibid) Minority variety - carrying most prestige, most widely understood (Crystal, 1995)
Conditions to Define ‘Non- Academy’ Standard English 1 It is not a language: it is only one variety. It is not an accent: in UK it is spoken by 12-15% of the population. It is not a style: it can be spoken in formal, neutral, and informal styles.
Conditions to Define ‘Non- Academy’ Standard English 2 It is not a register: there is no necessary connection between register (lexis in relation to subject matter) and Standard English. It is not a set of prescriptive rules: it can tolerate certain features which prescritive grammarians do not allow (e.g., “He is taller than me.”).
Standard English is… A Social Dialect (Trudgill, 1999) A dialect with greater prestige Not having an associated accent Not forming part of a geographical continuum
Non-standard Englishes Implication: all are sub-standard and incorrect (e.g., Australian English before 70s) Easier to identify the non-standard than the standard Lack of acceptance - Non-standard native varieties - Non-standard non-native varieties Due to attitudes toward race in the US and class in the UK New Englishes: fossilisation
The Future of World Englishes English may lose its position as principal world language -> English as the language of ‘others’ English may become one or more of the languages of ‘others’(=other people than the native speakers of English) -> the languages of ‘others’ as world languages
English as the language of ‘others’ 1 English as an international language is not distributed …, but is spread as a virtual language (Widddowson, 1997). –Distribution of English: as a set of conventionally coded forms and meanings; adoption and conformity –Spread of English: virtual and not actual; adaptation and nonconformity
English as the language of ‘others’ 2 The fact that English is becoming the language of ‘others’ means that these ‘others’ accord themselves the same English language rights as those claimed by natives. Rights to innovate without every difference from a standard native speaker variety being labelled ‘wrong.’
English as the language of ‘others’ 3 English to be international, which spreads and becomes a global lingua franca for the benefit of all, rather than being distributed to facilitate communication with the natives.
The language(s) of ‘others’ as world language(s) 1.English losing its international role 2.English coming to share the international role with a number of equals Reasons English is difficult Spanish is preferable A technology supports multilingualism (e.g. the Internet using languages other than English)
English: language killer or language promoter? English as a killer language - 6000-7000 languages in the world - two languages will die each month - English operates in a global context - politically and economically powerful English speakers benefited massively
English-Knowing Bilingualism Definition Made aware of the value of maintaining within linguistic English learners’ repertoires their indigenous language(s) for local identity functions alongside their English. Bilingualism as a critical role in the prevention of language death
What is necessary? To accept the concept – and not merely as an acceptable practice for non-English mother-tongue ‘others’, but as one in which they themselves engage. ‘citizens of the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and other largely English-speaking countries…to avoid being the monolingual dinosaurs in a multilingual world’ (Brumfit, 2002: 11). English-Knowing Bilingualism
English and Cultures Learners of English for local (Outer Circle) or international (Expanding Circle) use -not speaking English only with native speakers -rarely an imperative for them to lean British, American or Australian culture along with the English language English-Knowing Bilingualism
Immigrant and Indigenous Minorities in Inner Circle Countries The learning of any language would help to reduce that fear of the ‘other’ which is bred out of ignorance of difference, and which often leads to racist attitudes and behavours, and to campaigns such as ‘English Only’. However, the expectation is overwhelmingly that Immigrant and indigenous minorities (which in some cases are very large minorities) should learn the lingua-cultural practices of the L1 English population.
English Hierarchy Traditional Hierarchy of Englishes ‘standard’ L1 Englishes ‘non-standard’ L1 Englishes ‘standard’ L2 Englishes ‘non-standard’ L2 Englishes non-use of English (Jenkins, 2003: 142)
Reconceptualised Hierarchy of Englishes standard spoken Englishes for international use (bilingual varieties) standard spoken English for local use (L2 and L1 contexts) non-standard Englishes (L2 and L1 contexts) Jenkins, 2003: 143
Code Switching NOT serve purely communicative functions Frequently used as a means of promoting -identity -self expression
English and Identity 1.It is the monolingual mindset which is unable to grasp the fact that a language does not have to be a mother tongue in order to be capable of expressing a speaker’s social identity. 2.If English remains the world’s primary international language, the expressive function is likely to become increasingly central to its international use.