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‘The Silent Killers’ by Dr Caroline Gray PhD.

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Presentation on theme: "‘The Silent Killers’ by Dr Caroline Gray PhD."— Presentation transcript:

1 ‘The Silent Killers’ by Dr Caroline Gray PhD

2 Amazing Heart Facts ! The Human Heart Beats: 100,000 times in one day.
35 million times in a year. > 2.5 billion times during an average lifetime.

3 Amazing Heart Facts! Every day the heart expends enough energy to drive a truck 20 miles. In a lifetime, this would be equivalent to driving to the moon and back. The heart pumps about 1 million barrels of blood during an average lifetime

4 Amazing Heart Facts! Your body has about 5.6 L of blood, this 5.6 L of blood circulates through the body three times every minute. In one day, the blood travels a total of 12,000 miles.

5 Amazing Heart Facts! Aorta is the largest artery in the body, is almost the diameter of a garden hose. Capillaries are so small that it takes ten of them to equal the thickness of a human hair.

6 Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System

7 Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels
Heart is a hollow, muscular pump that is divided into 4 chambers: 2 upper atria collects the blood that enters the heart and push it to the ventricles. 2 lower ventricles push blood out of the heart and into the arteries to go to the rest of the body.

8 Function of the Heart The heart's primary functions are to supply oxygen to the body and to rid the body of waste products (CO2). Heart collects O2-blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, where it picks up O2 and drops off CO2. Heart then collects the O2-enriched blood from the lungs and pumps it to the tissues of the entire body.

9 How does Blood Move Through the Heart?
During each heartbeat, each heart chamber relaxes as it fills, a period called relaxation (diastole), and then contracts as it pumps blood, a period called contraction (systole). The two atria relax together and contract together, and the two ventricles relax together and contract together.

10 How your Heart Works

11 The Blood Vessels Arteries: Carry blood away from the heart.
Strong, elastic & flexible.  Blood pressures,  diameter. Veins: Carry blood back to the heart Thin-walled, less elastic. Blood pressures,>  diameter.

12 What Make’s Up Blood? Plasma: 92% H2O + vitamins, proteins & hormones.
RBC: Haemoglobin transports O2. Platelets: Cell fragments, repairs blood vessels & triggers clotting. WBC: Body's defence against infection.

13 Did you Know That……… Heart and circulatory disease is the UK’s biggest
killer !

14 Key Facts Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in the UK accounting for nearly 300,000 deaths a year:  1 in 2 of all deaths. The main forms of CVD are coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. About half of all deaths from CVD are from CHD and about a quarter are from stroke.

15 Key Facts CVD is also the main cause of premature death: 40% of premature deaths in men and 30% of premature deaths in women are from CVD. Whereas mortality from CHD is rapidly falling, morbidity is not falling and may be rising.

16 What is coronary heart disease?
Narrowing of coronary arteries by fatty deposits on inside wall. Reduces flow of blood to the heart and increases the chances of a blood clot blocking the artery, resulting in a heart attack.

17 How does CHD affect people?
As the coronary arteries narrow, patients will often experience chest pain or tightness, known as angina. This pain may spread to the left shoulder or arm, or to the neck and jaw and occurs at times of exercise, stress, or strain, particularly in cold weather.

18 What is a Stroke? Stroke is a sudden interruption in the blood supply
of the brain: Abrupt blockage of arteries leading to the brain = ischaemic stroke. Bleeding into brain tissue when a blood vessel bursts = hemorrhagic stroke.

19 How does Stroke affect people?
Strokes may cause sudden weakness, loss of sensation, or difficulty with speaking, seeing, or walking. Sometimes people with stroke have a headache, but stroke can also be completely painless.

20 Who is at risk of CVD? Decades of research have shown factors that contribute to the development of heart and circulatory problems. Many deaths could be prevented because CVD is related to certain aspects of lifestyle. Although medical treatments for CVD have come a long way, controlling these factors remains the key to preventing illness and death from CVD.

21 Things you cannot change:
Things you can change: High blood pressure Cholesterol Diabetes Diet Being overweight Lack of exercise Stress Smoking Excessive alcohol intake Things you cannot change: Family History Gender Age Race

22 What is Blood Pressure?

23 What is High Blood Pressure?
High blood pressure, is when the force of the blood against the artery walls is too great. High blood pressure occurs when blood vessels become narrow or rigid, forcing the heart to pump harder to push blood through the body. When blood pressure remains high, it puts an unnecessary strain on the heart and blood vessels.

24 High Blood Pressure = Silent Killer !
What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? One of the reasons high blood pressure is so dangerous is that it has no symptoms. High Blood Pressure = Silent Killer ! People with high blood pressure occasionally complain of; headaches, nose bleeds and shortness of breath. The only way to know if your blood pressure is high is to have it checked regularly.


26 What's so bad about High Blood Pressure?

27 How Can I Reduce My Blood Pressure?
Eat Healthily ( Sodium intake) Maintain Ideal Weight Exercise Regularly Reduce Stress Levels Drug Therapy: Diuretics Beta-blockers ACE Inhibitors

28 What is Diabetes? Diabetes = a high level of glucose, or "sugar,"
in your blood. Type 2 or 'non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus’ is the most common type of diabetes. Accounts for % of all diabetes. It usually develops after the age of 40.

29 What Causes Diabetes? In diabetes the pancreas makes insulin, but the body is unable to use it efficiently. When the insulin does not work efficiently, glucose is unable to enter the cells adequately, and too much glucose builds up in the blood. The result is that the tissues and organs of the body cannot function properly and become damaged.

30 What are the Symptoms of Diabetes?
Sometimes, people with Type 2 diabetes don't notice any symptoms. Diabetes = Silent Killer ! Or, the symptoms are experienced gradually. They include:  blurry vision cuts or sores that are slow to heal itchy skin, yeast infections increased thirst dry mouth need to urinate often leg pain

31 What's so bad about Diabetes?
Diabetics more likely to have high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol. Diabetes that is not controlled properly can lead to the development of kidney disease, blindness, nerve and blood vessel damage, and difficulties in fighting infection. So you can see how important it is to keep your diabetes under control.

32 How Can I Control My Blood Glucose?
Appropriate Diet Regular Exercise Weight Control Drug Therapy: Insulin Replacement Therapy Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs

33 What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatty substance (a lipid) that is an important part of the outer lining (membrane) of cells in the body of animals. Cholesterol is also found in the blood circulation of humans. The cholesterol in a person’s blood originates from two major sources, dietary intake and liver production.

34 What is High Cholesterol?
Cholesterol, like oil, cannot dissolve in the blood unless it is combined with special proteins called lipoproteins. Cholesterol + VLDL = LDL Cholesterol+ HDL = HDL LDL cholesterol is called "bad" cholesterol, because elevated LDL cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease.

35 How dose High LDL contribute to heart disease?
LDL cholesterol builds up on the inside of your arteries, it forms plaque causing the arteries to harden. Atherosclerosis, causes the arteries to become thicker, harder, less flexible and less efficient at transporting blood.

36 When blood flow is drastically impaired (or stopped
completely), a heart attack can result. When blood flow to the heart is restricted, angina (chest pain) can result.

37 What should my Cholesterol level be?
These are the cholesterol levels recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program.

38 High LDL = ‘Silent Killer’ !
What are the Symptoms of High Cholesterol? You cannot feel cholesterol or the effects it can have on your arteries and your heart, until it is probably too late! High Cholesterol has no symptoms. High LDL = ‘Silent Killer’ ! So you can see how important it is to keep your cholesterol level under control.

39 How Can I Reduce My Cholesterol?
Low-Fat Diet Regular Exercise Weight Control Drug Therapy: Statins

40 Food For Your Heart  Saturated Fat Intake
Eat at least 5 portions of Fruit & Vegetables  Heart-friendly Antioxidants  Fibre & Starch Consumption  Sodium Intake  Refined Sugar Intake

41 Get Active Regular exercise will:
Your heart is a muscle, it needs regular exercise to make it strong and work its best. Regular exercise will: Improve the balance of fats in your blood. Strengthen your heart muscles. Lower your resting BP levels. Use up calories to help weight control. Help you to relax and ease stress.

42 Follow A Regular Exercise Program
To get good results, exercise must be: Regular: At least three times per week Aerobic: Involve the large muscle groups and be repetitive (such as walking, swimming, rowing) Safe: Ask your doctor what type and amount of exercise is right for you, before you begin an exercise program

43 Maintain A Desirable Weight
Carrying excess weight increases your risk of heart disease. Check healthy weight using the Body Mass Index (BMI) calculator. BMI = Weight (Kg)  Height (m) Acceptable Range 18.5 to 25

44 Maintain A Desirable Weight
The more you weigh, the harder your heart must work to carry and nourish the excess weight. To lose weight, you need to take in fewer calories than you use. Look at your present eating habits Cut down on foods high in cholesterol and saturated fats. Beware of fad diets. Weight management should be permanent and gradual. If you need assistance in planning or maintaining a weight-loss program, talk to your doctor or dietician.

45 Alleviate Stress Stress puts an additional strain on the heart. It triggers the release of adrenaline which in turn increases both heart rate and blood pressure. The key to successfully manage stress levels: Avoid situations or people which upset you. Make time to relax Get enough sleep Take up a hobby Exercise Read your Bible Pray

46 Smoking: Poisoning the Heart Smoking is a Heart Breaking Habit,
Accelerates atherosclerosis. Provokes thrombosis Inhibits thrombolysis Reduces exercise capacity Smoking is a Heart Breaking Habit, Quit Now !

47 Alcohol’s Effects on the Heart
Numerous studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption helps protect against heart disease. On the other hand, heavy drinking, particularly over time, can damage the heart. That's why doctors will tell you “If you don't drink, don't start”.

48 Summary Risk factors play a significant role in identifying your risk of developing CVD. Lifestyle modification and drug treatment can help control modifiable risk factors.

49 Conclusion Don’t leave your health of your heart to chance. Take responsibility for your health before it’s too late !!

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