The Circulatory System
Function It’s main function is Transportation
Blood is used as a transport vehicle transports oxygen, nutrients, cell waste (such as Carbon dioxide), hormones and antibodies vital to maintaining homeostasis to and from cells
Parts of the Circulatory System
Divided into three major parts: The Heart The Blood Vessels The Blood
The Major Organ-The Heart
Heart acts as pump The heart pumps beats per minute (at rest) At REST, the heart pumps about 5 QUARTS of blood a minute. During EXTREME EXERTION (exercise) it can pump 40 quarts a minute.
Structure Size of your fist Large organ composed of
cardiac muscle--called myocardium Enclosed by a sac –called PERICARDIUM rich in mitochondria 4 hollow chambers Contain valves to keep blood flowing in ONE direction
The pathway looks like a circle
The heart, the lungs, and the blood vessels work together to form the circle part of the circulatory system.
The Chambers The heart has 4 hollow chambers
Upper chambers – atrium receives blood coming in from the veins Left & right Atrium Lower chambers - ventricle squeezes blood out into the arteries Left & right ventricle
Double Pump The two ventricles are responsible for the pumping action of the heart Each chamber pumps blood out of the heart but to different pathways That is why the heart is considered to be a double pump
3 Kinds of Circulation: Pulmonary circulation Coronary circulation
Movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart again
Pulmonary Circulation Pathway
1. The right Atria receives oxygen poor blood from the body. 2. blood moves to the right ventricle where it is pumped out to the lungs via pulmonary arteries 3. O₂ is exchanged for CO₂ 4. Oxygen rich blood now leaves lungs and returns to the heart
THIS IS THE LARGEST PATHWAY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM!
Systemic Circulation Supplies nourishment to all of the tissue located throughout the body , except for the heart and lungs THIS IS THE LARGEST PATHWAY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM!
Systemic Circulation Pathway
Oxygen rich blood returning from the lungs now enters the left atrium Moves through the valves to the left ventricle The left ventricle pumps the oxygen rich blood out the Aorta The blood is then carried from aorta to blood vessels delivering oxygen and nutrients to ALL tissues of the body Blood returns (oxygen poor) back to right atria
Coronary Circulation Coronary arteries branch immediately off the aorta and provide blood to the heart tissue
Hollow tubes that circulate your blood
Blood Vessels Hollow tubes that circulate your blood Arteries Veins Capillaries
Arteries Carry blood AWAY from the heart Heart pumps blood
Main artery called the aorta Aorta divides and branches Many smaller arteries Each region of your body has system of arteries supplying it with fresh, oxygen-rich blood.
Capillaries Very thin Only one cell thick Connect arteries & veins
Food and oxygen released to the body cells Carbon dioxide and other waste products returned to the bloodstream
Veins Carry blood to the heart Receive blood from the capillaries
Transport waste-rich/ oxygen-poor blood back to the lungs and heart Valves are located inside the veins Allow blood to move in one direction
How do the nutrients, gases and such get into and out of the capillaries?
Overview of Blood Vessels
Blood composition Plasma RBC WBC Platelets O₂ CO₂ Nutrients Antibodies
Blood Carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from your body cells. Hemoglobin, iron containing molecule Loosely picks up oxygen in the lungs Loses oxygen in areas low in oxygen (diffuses)
Blood Hemoglobin carries CO2 also
CO2 is a waste product of cellular work 70% of CO2 combines with water The rest travels to the lungs
Blood – RBCs Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body. Takes carbon dioxide and transports it back to the lungs About 5,000,000 Red Blood Cells in ONE drop of blood.
Blood – WBCs White blood cells protect the body from germs
Attack and destroy germs when they enter the body
Blood – Platelets and Plasma
Platelets are blood cells that help stop bleeding Plasma is the liquid part of the blood About half of your blood is made of plasma The plasma carries the blood cells throughout the body Plasma is made in the liver.
SUMMARY copy and complete the following; Arteries take blood ______ from the heart. The walls of an artery are made up of thick _________ walls and elastic fibres. Veins carry blood ________ the heart and also have valves. The _________ link arteries and veins, and have a one cell thick wall. Blood is made up of four main things ______, the liquid part of the blood; Red Blood Cells to carry ______; White Blood cells to protect the body from disease and _________ to help blood clot. away muscular towards capillaries plasma oxygen platelets
Some Disorders and Diseases of the Circulatory System
DISORDERS ATHEROSCLEROSIS Fatty deposits called plaque
Builds up in walls of arteries Obstructs flow Also a risk if clot breaks free and blocks flow elsewhere
Disorders (cont) Hypertension High blood pressure
Hearts works harder than necessary Increases risk of heart attack or stroke
Disorders (cont) Heart Attack Atherosclerosis in coronary artery
Heart muscle begins to die Symptoms Nausea Shortness of breath Severe chest pain IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION NECESSARY
Disorders (cont) Stroke
Blood clot gets stuck in blood vessels leading to brain Brain cells die due to lack of oxygen Or blood vessel burst Can lead to paralysis, loss of ability to speak death
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