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U.S. History to 1877. 1. Contrast the effects of European explorations. 2. Compare various early English settlements and colonies.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History to 1877. 1. Contrast the effects of European explorations. 2. Compare various early English settlements and colonies."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History to 1877

2 1. Contrast the effects of European explorations. 2. Compare various early English settlements and colonies.

3  3.1 Britain and the Colonies  3.2 Colonial Expansion and Revival  3.3 African Americans in the Colonies  3.4 Life in the Colonies

4  English Civil War  Mercantilism  Navigation Acts  Glorious Revolution  Salutary Neglect

5  King Charles I tried to limit the powers of Parliament.  A civil war broke out between those loyal to the king and those loyal to Parliament. King Charles I

6  Parliament won and executed King Charles I in January  Oliver Cromwell governed England until his death.  Parliament restored the monarchy to Charles II. Oliver Cromwell

7  This new economic theory stated that a country must acquire as much gold and silver as possible in order to be powerful and wealthy.  It also stated that a country should be self- sufficient in raw materials.  A country should establish colonies to supply the raw materials.  A country should have more exports than imports.  This concept is called balance of trade.

8  In accordance with mercantilism, the government tried to promote exports and restrict imports.  The Navigation Act required the colonies to sell certain goods only to England.

9  This gave England more control over its colonies.  If colonists wanted to sell goods to other nations, they had to pay a duty, or tax, on it.

10  The Staple Act required everything the colonies imported to come through England.  This was very profitable for England.  It was very costly for the colonies.

11  King James II succeeded Charles II to the throne.  Catholic King James II had a Protestant daughter and a newborn son who would be raised Catholic.  Parliament intervened to prevent a Catholic dynasty. King James II

12  It appointed King James II’s daughter Mary and her husband William to the monarchy.  No blood was shed during this “Glorious Revolution. ”  William and Mary allowed more self-rule in the colonies. William and Mary

13 WILLIAM IIIMARY II

14  Parliament tried to prevent the new monarchs from becoming too powerful.  It established the English Bill of Rights, granting basic legal rights to English citizens.

15  The Glorious Revolution showed that there are justified reasons to overthrow a government.  John Locke wrote Two Treatises of Government.  He argued that citizens were born with certain natural rights (particularly the rights to life, liberty, and property).

16  He also argued that a monarch’s right to rule came from the people.  The people had a right to overthrow a government if it violated the people’s rights.

17  Britain allowed its colonies more freedom to govern themselves than other European nations did.  “The British realized that the most salutary, or beneficial, policy was to neglect their colonies.”  “In the early 1700s, Great Britain rarely enforced its trade route regulations…because neglect served British economic interests better than strict enforcement.” -73.

18  Expansion  Great Awakening

19 1. Contrast the effects of European explorations. 2. Compare various early English settlements and colonies.

20  Colonists were more financially stable.  They were able to support bigger families.  Immigration to the colonies resulted in a population surge in the mid-1700s. Gentry in Colonial Williamsburg

21  With a growing population, the colonies needed more land.  The British colonies expanded westward into Native American and French territories.

22  Some Native Americans moved further west into other Native American tribes’ territories creating conflict.  Other Native Americans stirred up conflict between the British and the French.

23  Morality among the colonists began to decline.  Ministers began preaching messages of repentance and revival.  The First Great Awakening refers to a Christian revival that began in the early 1700s. Jonathan Edwards

24  These revivals were designed to renew commitment among the colonists.  The most popular ministers during the Great Awakening were Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. George Whitefield

25  Jonathan Edwards  Was a Massachusetts minister.  is believed to have started the Great Awakening.  preached the famous sermon: “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” p92

26  O sinner! Consider the fearful danger you are in.  It is a great furnace of wrath, a wide and bottomless pit, full of the fire of wrath, that you are held over in the hand of that God, whose wrath is provoked and incensed as much against you, as against many of the damned in hell.

27  You hang by a slender thread, with the flames of divine wrath flashing about it, and ready every moment to singe it, and burn it asunder.

28  George Whitefield  Was an evangelist who toured the colonies seven times between 1738 and  Preached in churches when he was invited.  Preached in fields or barns to thousands of people when not invited by the local pastor. George Whitefield

29  These ministers preached that any Christian could have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ.  They preached the Gospel (literally “good news”) about Jesus’ resurrection.

30  They preached that wealth and education was not necessary to become a Christian.  They stressed that faith and sincerity were the major requirements needed to become a Christian.

31 Ephesians 2:8-10 KJV  2:8 For by grace are ye saved through faith, and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:  2:9 Not of works, lest any man should boast.  2:10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

32  Slave Trade  Slavery  Free Blacks  Laws  Rebellions

33 1. Contrast the effects of European explorations. 2. Compare various early English settlements and colonies.

34  Middle Passage  The Middle Passage was one route of the triangular trade between the Americas, Europe, and Africa.  This term also refers to the slave trade from Africa to the Americas.  Slaves faced terrible conditions:  a month or longer journey  overcrowded ships  lack of nutrition  disease from lack of sanitation

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37  Olaudah Equiano  He was captured by Africans when he was 10 years old.  He was eventually sold and sent to the colonies.  He endured the Middle Passage. Olaudah Equiano

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39  He was educated and traveled a lot with his British slaveholder.  He later purchased his freedom and wrote an autobiography. Olaudah Equiano

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41  In the early colonial period, many slaves were treated like indentured servants.  In the early 1600s, many English settlers supported the slavery of Africans based on religion rather than race.  Purchasing slaves was very costly.  Some slaveholders encouraged slaves to create families to save money. African American actor in Colonial Williamsburg

42  Slaves performed a variety of tasks:  Farming  Housework  Cooking  Skilled labor depending on where they lived.  The South became more dependent on slave labor because of its agricultural economy.  The North relied less on slave labor due to its commercial economy. Cotton

43  A small number of blacks came to America as indentured servants.  In some colonies, slaves were allowed to work outside of the plantation to earn money as skilled laborers.  They could possibly purchase their freedom if they saved enough money.

44  Free blacks did the same kind of work as slaves.  Free blacks faced worse economical and social discrimination than slaves.  Free blacks had limited rights.  They could not vote or testify in court. A Campaign Slogan for the Abolitionist Movement later

45  The colonies created laws to regulate the daily lives of slaves.  Virginia created the slave code in 1705 by combining all of its laws concerning slavery.  Examples of the slave codes include:  Slaves could not get on ships or ferries or leave the town limits without a written pass.  Slaves could be convicted of crimes like owning hogs, carrying canes, or hitting a white person.  Punishments included whipping, banishment to the West Indies, and death.

46  Slaves tried a variety of ways to resist slavery.  They would break tools.  They would purposefully slow down the work.  They would even fake sickness.

47  Several dozen slaves organized a revolt in 1739 called the Stono Rebellion.  They killed more than 20 whites in South Carolina.  The slaves were captured and executed for the rebellion.

48  Social Classes  Men and Women  Education

49 1. Contrast the effects of European explorations. 2. Compare various early English settlements and colonies.

50  Gentry (“gentle folk” )  were wealthy citizens of the colonies.  could hire others to work for them.  wore wigs, silk stockings, and lace cuffs.  were landowners (usually white men).  dominated politics.  were educated. Gentry in Colonial Williamsburg

51  Ordinary People  dressed plainly.  were usually skilled in a particular trade.

52  Young boys became apprentices, individuals who would train for a certain skilled position.  Men farmed or produced goods like shoes, guns, and candles.  Men had authority over their wives.  Husbands were allowed to beat their wives. (“rule of thumb”)

53  Women’s rights were limited.  Women could not  Own property  Vote  Hold office  Serve on a jury  Women were responsible for  Cooking  Cleaning  Washing  Sewing  Weaving cloth  Gardening  Assisting other women in childbirth  Training daughters to do all of the above

54  School was not mandatory.  Puritans believed citizens should be educated so they could read the Bible.  The New England Colonies became the first to support public education.

55  Wealthy citizens in the South would sometimes hire tutors to teach their children.  The wealthy were usually the only ones who went to college.

56  Those who went to college trained to be lawyers or ministers.  Until the 1740s, the only three colleges in the colonies were  Harvard (1636)  Yale (1701)  William and Mary (1693). Above: Harvard Seal Below: Yale Charter

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