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Lesson Overview 11.4 Meiosis.

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1 Lesson Overview 11.4 Meiosis

2 Chromosome Number Chromosomes—those strands of DNA and protein inside the cell nucleus—are the carriers of genes. The genes are located in specific positions on chromosomes video

3 Diploid Cells A cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes is diploid, meaning “two sets.” Diploid- 2N These two sets of chromosomes are homologous, meaning that each of the chromosomes from DAD has a corresponding chromosome from MOM. All somatic (body ) cells are diploid!

4 Meiosis so..MEIOSIS is the way… If egg and sperm had same number of
chromosomes as other body cells . . . baby would have too many chromosomes! so..MEIOSIS is the way… to make cells with ½ the number of chromosomes (N) for sexual reproduction

5 Haploid Cells Cells that contain only one copy of each chromosome are:
haploid (n), meaning “one set.” All sperm and egg cells are haploid.

6 Meiosis is different than mitosis in several ways
Purpose is reproduction, NOT growth! 2 rounds of cell division. Four daughter cells produced Not genetically identical to parent Haploid gametes (sex cells) produced. Meiosis dance

DNA replication will only occur before Meiosis I !! Crossing over (synapsis)- Homologous chromosomes pair up during Prophase I of Meiosis I and exchange bits of DNA. This group of FOUR (4) chromatids is called a tetrad

8 Meiosis vs Mitosis Metaphase I: chromosomes line up as homologous pairs on the metaphase plate (independent assortment of chromosomes) Anaphase I: homologous chromosomes separate (reductional division)-halves the number of chromosome sets per cell (diploid to haploid)

9 Independent Assortment

10 3 Events that contribute to Genetic Variation
Independent assortment of chromosomes crossing over during prophase I of meiosis I 3. random fertilization of eggs by sperm

11 Gametes to Zygotes In male animals, these gametes are called sperm.
The haploid cells produced by meiosis II are gametes. In male animals, these gametes are called sperm. In female animals, generally only one of the cells produced by meiosis is involved in reproduction. The other 3 are called polar bodies. Fertilization—the fusion of male and female gametes—generates new combinations of alleles in a zygote. The zygote undergoes cell division by mitosis and eventually forms a new organism.


13 Gene Linkage and Gene Maps
How can two alleles from different genes be inherited together? Alleles of different genes tend to be inherited together from one generation to the next when those genes are located on the same chromosome. Thomas Hunt Morgan’s research on fruit flies led him to the principle of gene linkage.

14 Gene Linkage Morgan’s findings led to two remarkable conclusions:
First, each chromosome is actually a group of linked genes. Second, it is the chromosomes that assort independently, not individual genes. Alleles of different genes tend to be inherited together when those genes are located on the same chromosome.

15 Gene Mapping In 1911, Columbia University student Alfred Sturtevant wondered if the frequency of crossing-over between genes during meiosis might be a clue to the genes’ locations. Sturtevant reasoned that the farther apart two genes were on a chromosome, the more likely it would be that a crossover event would occur between them. If two genes are close together, then crossovers between them should be rare. If two genes are far apart, then crossovers between them should be more common.

16 Gene Mapping By this reasoning, he could use the frequency of crossing-over between genes to determine their distances from each other. Sturtevant gathered lab data and presented a gene map showing the relative locations of each known gene on one of the Drosophila chromosomes. Sturtevant’s method has been used to construct gene maps ever since this discovery.

17 Gene Mapping

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